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Ass. Prof. Agata Stanek MD, PhD President of Polish Society of Cryotherapy Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine.

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Prezentacja na temat: "Ass. Prof. Agata Stanek MD, PhD President of Polish Society of Cryotherapy Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine."— Zapis prezentacji:

1 Ass. Prof. Agata Stanek MD, PhD President of Polish Society of Cryotherapy Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom of Medical University of Silesia in Katowice DEVELOPMENTS IN CRYOTHERAPY EUROPEAN CRYOGENICS DAYS, GENEVA

2 COLD - HISTORY OF THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATON 2500 B.C. – in Egypt- cold exerted an anti-inflammatory effect and alleviated injury pain; in V B.C. Hippocrates used cold to decrease swelling, bleeding and pain;

3 in 1883 a Polish physicists Karol Olszewski and Zygmunt Wróblewski executed the first condensing of nitrogen and oxygen; COLD - HISTORY OF THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATON

4 in 1978 T. Yamauchi in Japan – created whole-body cryotherapy; for the first time in the world he applied whole-body cryotherapy in the treatment of patients with for the first time in the world he applied whole-body cryotherapy in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis COLD - HISTORY OF THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATON

5 in 1982 R. Fricke in Germany- in Germany- used whole- used whole- body cryotherapy for the first time in Europe; COLD - COLD - HISTORY OF THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATON

6 In 1983 – Z. Zagrobelny – Department of Physiotherapy of University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw – local cryotherapy was applied for patients first time in Poland; Cryotherapy in Poland: COLD - HISTORY OF THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATON

7 1989 Polish cryochamber (second in Europe, third in the world) Zbigniew Raczkowski –Institute of Low Temperatures and Structural Investigations of the Polish Scientific Academy in Wroclaw; the creator of the first Polish cryochamber Cryotherapy in Poland: COLD - HISTORY OF THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATON

8 MODERN CRYOMEDICINE Cryogenic temperatures in medicine

9 CRYOTHERAPY CRYOSURGERY LOCAL CRYOSTIMULATION WHOLE-BODY CRYOSTIMULATION

10 CRYOSURGERY CRYOSURGERY

11 Cryosugery - interruption of the continuity of tissues as a result of freezing with a view to their removal or destruction.

12 CRYO-S MINI Cryoflex device for cryosurgery

13 Cryosurgical treatment with usage of spray probe

14 The use of extremely low temperatures (below –100°C) applied for a short time (2-3 minutes) to stimulate physiological reactions in the human body, in order to achieve more effective pharmacological treatment and. The use of extremely low temperatures (below –100°C) applied for a short time (2-3 minutes) to stimulate physiological reactions in the human body, in order to achieve more effective pharmacological treatment and kinesiotherapy. Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cieślar G., Sieroń A. Therapeutic aplication of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Balneol. Pol., 2007, 49, 1, 107, Podbielska H., Stręk W., Biały D. (eds). Whole-body cryotherapy. Acta of Biomedical Engineering. Indygo, Zahir Media, Wroclaw, 2007 Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003 CRYOTHERAPY- DEFINITION

15 LOCAL CRYOTHERAPY (CRYOSTIMULATION- HYPERBARIC GASEOUS LOCAL CRYOTHERAPY)

16 application of the cold to a selected part of the human body. LOCALCRYOTHERAPY

17 ACCORDING TO THE KIND OF LOCAL CRYOTHERAPY IS DIVIDED INTO: ACCORDING TO THE KIND OF COOLING MEDIUM LOCAL CRYOTHERAPY IS DIVIDED INTO: 1.Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. 2.Cryotherapy with carbon dioxide.

18 CRYO -T ELEPHANT devices for local cryotherapy-cooling medium liquid nitrogen (METRUM CRYOFLEX)

19 CRYO -T (METRUM CRYOFLEX) device for local cryotherapy-cooling medium liquid carbon dioxide CRYO -T (METRUM CRYOFLEX) device for local cryotherapy-cooling medium liquid carbon dioxide

20 KRIOPOL R60 CREATOR

21 Application of cryogenic temperatures for a short time (1-3 minutes) on the entire body of the patient. Whole-body cryotherapy is performed in cryochambers WHOLE-BODYCRYOTHERAPY

22 Antechamber: acclimatisation to cryogenic temperature, exposure duration 60 seconds, temperature -60°C. Proper chamber: exposure duration 2-3minutes, temperature below -110°C. The exposure duration depends on individual cryogenic temperature tolerance. Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cieślar G., Sieroń A. Therapeutic aplication of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Balneol. Pol., 2007, 49, 1, 107, Podbielska H., Stręk W., Biały D. (eds). Whole-body cryotherapy. Acta of Biomedical Engineering. Indygo, Zahir Media, Wroclaw, 2007 Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003WHOLE-BODYCRYOTHERAPY

23 CRYOTHERAPY CHAMBER –WROCŁAW TYPE (CREATOR)

24 TWO - CHAMBER SYSTEM Antechamber Temp.-60°C Proper chamber Temp. -110° C

25 CRYOCHAMBER WITH COLD RETENTION (CRYOFLEX METRUM)

26 EXAMPLE OUTFITS FOR WHOLE - BODY CRYOTHERAPY

27 Endocrine system- increased beta-endorphins secretion; Neuronal system - functional exclusion of sensory receptors and their junctions with proprioceptors; decreased nerve transmission in sensory fibres, reduction the activity of free nerve endings, raising the pain threshold, over-ride the pain sensation - known as the pain gate theory; Wawrowska A.: Wpływ ogólnoustrojowej krioterapii organizm osób zdrowych i chorych reumatycznych ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem stężeń wybranych hormonów, beta-endorfin, 6-ketoPGF1 . Praca Dokorska AWF, Wrocław Bauer J., Skrzek A.: Fizjologiczne podstawy krioterapii. Acta Bio-Opt. Inform. Med.., 1997,3,(2-4), Sieroń A., Rykaczewska-Czerwińska M., Klimkiewicz T., Jakrzewska H., Jagodziński L., Birkner E., Wiśniowska B., Plech A. Antinociceptive effect in rats induced by the cooling of their whole body. Acta Bio- Opt.Inform.Med., 2002,8, ; ANALGESIC EFFECT

28 Metabolic action (among others decreased concentrations of histamine and lactate in inflammatory changed tissues). Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cholewka A., Cieślar G., Rosmus-Kuczia I., Drzazga Z., Sieroń A. Estimation of analgesic action of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis..Fizjoter. Pol., 2011, 1, 4, Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003 ANALGESIC EFFECT

29 reduction of nerve transmission and reactivity of peripheral sensomotor nerve endings  decreased muscle tone; increased muscle power; Bilińska M., Rudkowska-Brzecka A., Marytnów R., Brzecki A.: Badania elektromiograficzne w ocenie siły mięśniowej po krioterapi u chorych z reumatoidalnym zapaleniem stawów. Przegl. Lek., 1993, 50, (1-2), Schroder D., Anderson M.: Kryo-und-Theromtherapie: Grundlagen und praktische Adwendung.Harausgegeben von Bernd Gaupel, Gustav Fischer verlag, Stuttgarrt-Jena-New York NEURO-MUSCULAR EFFECT

30 ANTIOEDEMATOUS EFFECT arterial hyperemia of periarticular oedemas, increased capillary filtration, improvement of lymphatic vessels patency draining intercellular space. Gregorowicz H., Zagrobelny Z. Krioterapia ogólnoustrojowa wskazania i przeciwwskazania, przebieg zabiegu i jego skutki fizjologiczne i kliniczne. Acta Bio-Opt. Inform. Med., 1998, 4, Kalmus P., Włodarczyk K., Pinkowska I., Piotrowska E., Szulicka A. Wyniki leczenia reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawow zabiegami krioterapeutycznymi i peloidowymi. Baln. Pol.,1999, 41,83-91.

31 ANTIOEDEMATOUS EFFECT cryogenic temperatures accelerate lymphatic flow but they do not influence lymph formation the lymphatic flow acceleration is long lasting but it appears only at the end of the exposure cycle (10 daily exposures) Sieroń A., Pastuszka A., Marniok B., Wiśniowska B., Jagodziński L., Ślusarczyk K., Cieślar G., Stanek A. Influence of low temperatures on lymph formation and flow velocity in mice. Thermology Int.,2004,14,

32 ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT  inflammatory parameters: ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), CRP (C-reactive protein), seromucoid, IL-2,IL-8,IL-10, sICAM ; Stanek A., Cieślar G., Strzelczyk K., Kasperczyk S., Wiczkowski A., Birkner E., Sieroń A.: Influence of cold on inlammatory markers in patients with ankylosing spodylitis and healthy volunteers. Polish Journal of Environmental Study, 2010,19,1, Banfi G., Melegati G., Barassi A., Dogliotti G., d’Eril G., Dugue B., Corsi M. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on serum mediators of inflammation and serum muscle enzyme in athtes. J.Thermal Biol., 2008, 34,55-59.

33 beneficial influence on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance Stanek A. Influcence of whole-body cryotherpy on antioxidant status in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Thesis, Medical University of Silesia, 2004 Lubkowska A., Chudecka M., Klimek A., Szyguła Z., Frączek B.: Acute effect of a single whole-body cryostimulation on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in blood of healthy, young men. J Thermal. Biol., 2008, 33, Mila-Kierzenkowska C., Wozniak A., Wozniak B., Drewa G., Rakowski A., Jurecka A., Rajewski R. Whole- body cryostimulation in kayaker women: a study of the effect of cryogenic temperatures on oxidative stress after the exercise. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 2009, 49, (2), ANTIINFLAMMATORY EFFECT

34  cellular and humoral immunity  prostaglandins and cytokins;  number and percentage of lymphocytes: CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56(NK); Zagrobelny Z., Halawa B., Kuliczkowski K., Frydecka I., Grgorowicz H.: Wpływ ogólnoustrojowej krioterapii w komorze niskotemperaturowej oraz leczenia ruchem na subpopulacje limfocytów we krwi obwodowej u chorych na chorobę zwyrodnieniową stawów i reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów. Reumatologia, 1996, 34, IMMUNE SYSTEM

35 HORMONAL SYSTEM  - adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, B- endorphine, testosterone (in males);  thyrothrophic hormone, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, follicular hormone, luteinizing hormone and 6-ketoPGF1  (prostaglandin metabolite causing vasodilatation effect of blood vessels) Wawroska A.: Wpływ ogólnoustrjowej krioterapii na organizm osób zdrowych i chorych reumatycznych ze szczególnym uwzględniem stężeń wybranych hormonów, beta-endorfin, 6-ketoPGF1 . Praca Dokorska AWF, Wroclaw Smolander J., Leppäluoto J., Westerlund T., Oksa J., Dugue B., Mikkelsson M., Ruokonen A. Effects of repeated whole-body cold exposures on serum concentrations of growth hormone, thyrotropin, prolactin and thyroid hormones in healthy women. Cryobiology, 2009, 58, (3),

36 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM MICROCIRCULATIONMACROCIRCULATION

37 MICROCIRCULATION I phase: - contraction of precapillary sphincters   skin precapillary flow; I phase: - contraction of precapillary sphincters   skin precapillary flow; - opening of arteriovenous anastomoses  oxygenated blood flow back through veins to the left atrium of the heart; Bauer J., Skrzek A. Fizjologiczne podstawy krioterapii. Acta Bio- Opt.Inform.Med., 1997,3, Gregorowicz H.: Wpływ krioterapii ogólnoustrojowej na wybrane wskaźniki hemodynamiczne i wentylacji płuc w schorzeniach reumatycznych. Praca Doktorska AM, Wrocław, 1992.

38 MICROCIRCULATION II phase: - vasodilatation of capillary vessels, closure of arteriovenous anastomoses,  hiperperfusion of tissues  oxygen supply to tissues with inflammatory changes,  lactate and histamine concentrations  pain reduction Bauer J., Skrzek A. Fizjologiczne podstawy krioterapii. Acta Bio-Opt.Inform.Med., 1997,3, Gregorowicz H.: Wpływ krioterapii ogólnoustrojowej na wybrane wskaźniki hemodynamiczne i wentylacji płuc w schorzeniach reumatycznych. Praca Doktorska AM, Wrocław, 1992.

39 MACROCIRCULATION  blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility; in literature there are no cases of arrhythmias, electrocardiographic symptoms of myocardial ischemia; Jagodziński L., Cieślar G., Stanek A., Puszer M., Bilska A., Wiśniowska B., Romuk E., Skrzep-Poloczek E., Birkner E., Sieroń A.: Ocena frakcji wyrzutowej lewej komory serca u pacjentów z zesztywniającym zapaleniem stawów kręgosłupa poddanych krioterapii ogólnoustrojowej. Balneol. Pol., 2003, 45, (3-4), Jonderko G., Końca A., Rosmus-Kuczia I., Nowicki L.: Wpływ krioterapii miejscowej gazem chłodzącym i lodem na elektrokardiogram i ciśnienie tętnicze krwi u chorych na reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów. Ann.Acad. Med.Siles., 1991,24, Zagrobelny Z., Halawa B., Negrusz-Kawecka M., Spring A., Gregorowicz H., Wawrowska A., Rozwadowski G.: Zmiany hormonalne i hemodynamiczne wywołane schładzeniem całego ciała chorych na reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów. Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn., 1992,87,34-40.

40 AND ALSO….

41 WHOLE – BODY CRYOTHERAPHY beneficial influence on the psyche (decreased level of fear, anxiety, excitability; increased perception). Rymaszewska J., Biały D., Zagrobelny Z., Kiejna A. The influence of whole-body cryotherapy on mental health. Psychiatr.Pol., 2000,34,64-653; Rymaszewska J., Ramsey D., Chładzińska-Kiejna S. Whole-body cryotherapy as adjunct treatment of depressive syndrome and anxiety disorders. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp.,2008,56,63-68.

42 WHAT MORE

43 Cryotherapy prior to kinesiotherapy facilitates the intensification of training and its duration severalfold. Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cieślar G., Sieroń A. Therapeutic aplication of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Balneol. Pol., 2007, 49, 1, 107, Podbielska H., Stręk W., Biały D. (eds). Whole-body cryotherapy. Acta of Biomedical Engineering. Indygo, Zahir Media, Wroclaw, 2007 Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003

44 WHY ?

45 Cryotherapy Reduced stimulus threshold Analgesia Reduced tendon reflexes Reduced pain Reduced muscular tone Prolonged relaxation Improvement of motion range Physical rehabilitation (kinesiotherapy) Knight K.L. Cryotherapy in sport injury management, Human Kinetics: Champaingn, 1995.

46 CRYOTHERAPY - clinical indications: I. Disorders of motion system II. Neurological system disorders III. Wellness IV.Depressive syndrome V. Sports medicine

47 DISORDERS OF MOTION SYSTEM: DISORDERS OF MOTION SYSTEM: inflammatory diseases of motor system (f.e. reumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis); degenerative diseases of joints and the spine; inflammatory lesions of the joints of metabolic origin (e.g. gouty diathesis); Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, Stanek A., Cholewka A., Gaduła J., Drzazga Z., Sieroń A., Sieroń-Stołtny K.. Can whole-body cryotherapy with subsequent kinesiotherapy procedures in closed type cryogenic chamber improve BASDAI, BASFI, some spine mobility parameters and decrease pain intensity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis? BioMed Res Int 2015, Vol. 2015, Article ID , 11 pages Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003

48 DISORDERS OF THE MOTION SYSTEM: DISORDERS OF THE MOTION SYSTEM: posttraumatic and overloading lesions, discopathy,osteoporosis, fibromyalgia syndrome; Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cieślar G., Sieroń A. Therapeutic aplication of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Balneol. Pol., 2007, 49, 1, 107, Podbielska H., Stręk W., Biały D. (eds). Whole-body cryotherapy. Acta of Biomedical Engineering. Indygo, Zahir Media, Wroclaw, 2007 Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003

49 diseases of the central nervous system with muscle spasticity multiple sclerosis radicular syndromes diseases of the peripheral nervous system NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM DISORDERS:

50 SPORTS MEDICINE : SPORTS MEDICINE : The benefits observed are: reduction of pain increase in muscle strength inhibition of inflammatory processes reduction in the regeneration phase reduction of posttraumatic treatment enhancement of sports performance overall faster return to training Biały D., Zimmer K., Zagrobelny Z. Krioterapia ogólnoustrojowa w sporcie. Med.Sport.,1999, 15, Swenson C., Sward L., Karlsson J. Cryotherapy in sport medicine. Scand. J. Med.Sci. Sport., 1996,6,

51 Future development

52 FUTURE CRYOTHERAPY - health and well - being More and more frequently cryotherapy is used to improve health, harden and revitalize the body and prevent stress-related diseases and their consequences Stanek A., Sieroń A. Contemporary whole-body cryotherapy in biological renewal. Ann. Acad. Med. Siles., 2012, 66, 4, 64-70

53 FUTURE - SKIN Whole-body cryotherapy helps to reduce the appearance of cellulite and loose skin as a result of aging, weight lost, post liposuction as well as prevents wrinkles.

54 CELLULITE - BEFORE AND AFTER WHOLE-BODY CRYOTHERAPY

55 STRICT CONTRAINDICATIONS TO CRYOTHERAPY: cold intolerance, cryoglobulinemia,cryofibrinogenemia, Raynaud’s phenomena, cold urticaria, Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cieślar G., Sieroń A. Therapeutic aplication of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Balneol. Pol., 2007, 49, 1, 107, Podbielska H., Stręk W., Biały D. (eds). Whole-body cryotherapy. Acta of Biomedical Engineering. Indygo, Zahir Media, Wroclaw, 2007 Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003

56 STRICT CONTRAINDICATIONS TO CRYOTHERAPY: venous thromboemolism, hypothyreosis, local disorders of blood supply, Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cieślar G., Sieroń A. Therapeutic aplication of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Balneol. Pol., 2007, 49, 1, 107, Podbielska H., Stręk W., Biały D. (eds). Whole-body cryotherapy. Acta of Biomedical Engineering. Indygo, Zahir Media, Wroclaw, 2007 Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003

57 STRICT CONTRAINDICATIONS TO CRYOTHERAPY: considerable anemia, claustrophobia,cachexia,hypothermia, cancer disease Sieroń A., Cieślar G., Stanek A. (eds). Cryotherapy. alpha-medica press, Bielsko-Biała, 2010 Stanek A., Cieślar G., Sieroń A. Therapeutic aplication of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Balneol. Pol., 2007, 49, 1, 107, Podbielska H., Stręk W., Biały D. (eds). Whole-body cryotherapy. Acta of Biomedical Engineering. Indygo, Zahir Media, Wroclaw, 2007 Zagrobelny Z.(ed). Whole-body and local cryotherapy. Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, 2003

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