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JPO Języki Programowania Obiektowego Marek Moszyński p.744

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1 JPO Języki Programowania Obiektowego Marek Moszyński p.744

2 Rys historyczny Abak (3000pne –Babilonia; 500pne -Rzym,Grecja) Arytmometr Pascala (XVIIw – 1644r) Maszyna Babbagea (XIXw – 1820r) Ada Lovelass (córka Byrona) – pierwsza programistka Z3,Z4 (Konrad Zuse, Niemcy 1941) COLOSSUS (Wielka Brytania 1943) ENIAC (Filadelfia ) Fortran (1957) Microprocessor (1971)

3 Paradygmaty programowania functional - LISP, Scheme, ML, Haskel imperative/procedural - Pascal, FORTRAN, COBOL, Tcl logical - Prolog modular – Modula 2, Ada concurrency – Ada object oriented - Smalltalk, C++, Java, Python,

4 1. Functional Lisp is the classic example of a functional language (although by no means the only one for example, ML is a very widely used functional language). These languages place far more emphasis on applying a function (often recursively) to a set of one or more data items. The function would then return a value - the result of evaluating the function. If the function changed any data items then this was a side effect of the function. There is (was) limited support for more algorithmic solutions which might rely on repetition via iteration. The functional approach turned out to be extremely useful as a way of implementing complex systems for early AI researchers. ML fun fac : (int -> int) 0 = 1 | fac n = n * fac (n-1);

5 2. Procedural Exemplified by languages such as Pascal and C. These were an attempt to move programming languages to a higher level (than the earlier assembler languages). The emphasis was now on algorithmic solutions and on procedures which operated on data items. They were extremely effective, but software developers still encountered difficulties. This was partly due to the increased complexity of the systems typically being developed. It was also because, although high level procedural languages removed the possibility of certain types of error occurring and increased productivity, developers could still cause problems for themselves. For example, the interfaces between different parts of the system might be incompatible, but this might not become obvious until integration testing or system testing.

6 3. Modular Languages such as Modula-2 and Ada employ modularization. In these languages a module hides its data from module users. The users of the module can only access that data via defined interfaces. These interfaces are published so that users know what interfaces are available (and their definitions) and can check that they are using the correct versions.

7 4. Object oriented This is the most recent commercial programming paradigm. This approach can be seen as taking modularization a step further. Not only do you have explicit modules (in this case objects) but these objects can inherit features from one another. We can of course ask why another programming paradigm?. The answer to this partly lies in the failure of many software development projects to keep to budget, remain within time scales and to give the user what they want. Of course, it should never be assumed that object orientation is the answer to all these problems, it is really just another tool available to software developers.

8 Początki OOPL Programowanie obiektowe wywodzi się z pewnych własności języka SIMULA, który powstał w latach sześćdziesiątych. Pierwszym językiem programowania obiektowego lub jak nazywają to jego twórcy - językiem obiektowo zorientowanym (Object Oriented Language) był Smalltalk skonstruowany na początku lat 80 -tych zeszłego stulecia. Głównym jego twórcą jest Adele Goldberg.

9 Historia OOPL

10 Języki programowania Compiled by François Labelle from statistics on open-source projects at SourceForge

11 Whats new in programming languages Commercial trend over past 5 years –Increasing use of type-safe languages: Java, C#, … –Scripting languages, other languages for web applications Perl is widely known as the duct-tape of the Internet Teaching trends –Java replacing C as most common intro language Less emphasis on how data, control represented in machine Research and development trends –Modularity Java, C++: standardization of new module features –Program analysis Automated error detection, programming env, compilation –Isolation and security Sandboxing, language-based security, …

12 Cechy dobrych PL Readability - easy to read and understand the code - COBOL Writeability - easy to write: easy to understand syntax, fewer keystrokes - C Othogonality -commands are consistent and usually only one way to do something - Algol-68 Platform independence - can be used across multiple platforms - Java Reliability - programs once debugged usually work correctly - Ada is a good example, C++ is a bad example Low cost - compiler is inexpensive, execution and compiling of programs is relatively inexpensive - Java has $0 cost compiler

13 Programowanie obiektowe Programowanie obiektowe jest stylem programowania, w którym do tworzenia programów używa się obiektów. obiekt = dane + metody Styl taki powstał w wyniku postrzegania rzeczywistości jako zbioru obiektów różnego typu, które mogą wykonywać określone czynności, potrafią się ze sobą komunikować i na siebie wzajemnie oddziaływać. Obiekty w programie często odzwierciedlają cechy i umiejętności swoich odpowiedników ze świata rzeczywistego. Tradycyjne podejście do programowania, zwane programowaniem proceduralnym charakteryzuje się rozdzieleniem danych od operujących na nich funkcji. Odizolowanie danych od kodu może prowadzić do przypadkowych zmian danych przez funkcje, które nie są z nimi logicznie związane. Ponadto modyfikacja programu napisanego w ten sposób jest trudna do realizacji, gdyż nawet niewielka zmiana działania programu może spowodować konieczność wprowadzenia poprawek w wielu miejscach. Takich wad pozbawione jest programowanie obiektowe, będące po programowaniu strukturalnym kolejnym etapem w rozwoju języków programowania.

14 What is an Object? An object is a software bundle of related variables and methods. Software objects are often used to model real-world objects you find in everyday life. Visual representation of a software object A bicycle modeled as a software object

15 What is a Class? A class is a blueprint or prototype that defines the variables and the methods common to all objects of a certain kind. Class is an implementation of an abstract data type and so encapsulates both data and operations. Object is run-time instance of class. Classes just sit there, objects do the real work. Memory is allocated for Objects not for Classes.

16 What is a Message? Software objects interact and communicate with each other using messages. The object to which the message is addressed (YourBicycle) The name of the method to perform (changeGears) Any parameters needed by the method ( lowerGear )

17 Mechanizmy OOP definiowanie nowego typu danych, łączącego dane i działające na nich metody w jedną całość. definiowanie nowego typu obiektowego, zwanego potomnym, na podstawie typu istniejącego, zwanego bazowym. Operacja dziedziczenia powoduje przeniesienie danych i metod z typu bazowego do typu potomnego. definiowanie metod wirtualnych, które mają tę samą nazwę w typie bazowym i potomnym, ale określają różne działanie.

18 Przykazania OO 1. Encapsulation (ukrycie danych) 2. Inheritance (dziedziczenie) 3. Polymorphism (wiele+kształt, metody wirtualne) 4. Abstraction, Protection (abstrakcja) Dynamic Binding – właściwość języka

19 1.Encapsulation or data hiding Encapsulation is the process of hiding all the details of an object that do not contribute to its essential characteristics. Essentially, it means that what is inside the class is hidden; only the external interfaces are known (by other objects). That is, as the user of an object you should never need to look inside the box!

20 2. Inheritance In many cases objects may have similar (but not identical) properties. One way of managing (classifying) such properties is to have a hierarchy of classes. In this hierarchy of classes a class inherits both from its immediate parent class, above it in the hierarchy, and from classes above the parent. This inheritance mechanism permits common characteristics of objects to be defined once, but used in many different places. Any change is thus localized.

21 3. Abstraction An abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object that distinguishes it from all other kinds of objects and thus provides crisply defined conceptual boundaries, relative to the perspective of the viewer. That is, it states how a particular object differs from all others.

22 4. Polymorphism This is the ability to send the same message to different instances which may appear to perform the same function. However, the way in which the message is handled will depend on the class of which the instance is an example.


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