Prezentacja na temat: "The semantics of Polish bare NPs Ewa Rudnicka Institute of English Studies University of Wrocław."— Zapis prezentacji:
The semantics of Polish bare NPs Ewa Rudnicka Institute of English Studies University of Wrocław
Goals Present the results of empirical questionnaire-based studies into the semantics of Polish bare singular and bare plural arguments Compare Polish data with English data reviewed in the literature Suggest explanations/generalizations
Interpretations the kind x (name of a kind given in italics) - kind as an abstract, atomic individual (henceforth K) specimens of a kind x – kind as a set of its instantiations (objects or individuals) (henceforth S) a sub-kind of the basic kind x – an abstract individual as an element of a set (henceforth T) sub-kinds of the basic kind x – a set of abstract individuals (henceforth ST)
BPs as subjects of the past tense form of wyginąć – die out 1.a. Dinozaury wyginęły miliony lat temu. Dinosaurs died out millions years ago. K 37,96%, S 44,44%, T 1,85%, ST 15,74% b. 250 mln lat temu organizmy wyginęły z braku tlenu. 250 million years ago organisms died out because of the lack of oxygen. N 33,33%, K 28,70%, S 28,70%, T 3,70%, ST 5,56% c. Mamuty i mastodonty wyginęły rzeczywiście mniej więcej w mammoths and mastodonts died out really more less in tym czasie, gdy na tereny, które zamieszkiwały, przybyli ludzie. when on areas which live came people K 39,81%, S 49,07%, T 0%, ST 11,11%
BSs as subjects of the past tense form of wyginąć – die out 2.a. Dinozaur wyginął miliony lat temu. dinosaur died out millions years ago N 33,33% K 35,19% S 12,04% T 11,11% ST 8,33% b. W V wieku naszej ery żubr wyginął na terenach Szwecji, Francji i Włoch. In V age our era bison died out on areas Sweden France and Italy N 11,11%, K 46,30%, S 34,26%, T 0%, ST 8,33% c. Najstarszy przodek słonia żył 50 milionów lat temu, a jego kuzyn oldest ancestor elephant lived 50 millions years ago and his cousin mamut wyginął w czasach prehistorycznych. mammoth died out in times prehistoric K 90%, S 10%, T 0%, ST 0% d. Dinozaur tyrannosaurus rex wyginął 300 tysięcy lat temu. A: 76,19%, dinosaur tyrannosaurus rex died out 300 thousands years ago N 23,81% e. Śledź atlantycki wyginął 50 lat temu. A: 90,48%, N: 9,52% herring Atlantic died out 50 years ago
Observations (1) But for the highest level term organizmy – organisms, which shows a bit degraded acceptability, BPs are perfect as subjects of the past form of wyginąć – die out. BSs pattern alike, although there appear some marginal unacceptable choices and the case of degraded acceptability occurs at a level clearly lower than in the case of BPs with dinosaur. These slight contrasts in acceptability are reflected in the values of interpretation choices: they are lower for higher level terms, yet the proportion in which they stand to each other is comparable to the ones of basic and lower level terms, especially in the case of BPs. BSs demonstrate the strong preference for one reading, namely the atomic kind (K), BPs are ambiguous between the K and the S readings.
BSs as objects of the past tense form of wynaleźć – invent 3.a. Babbage wynalazł komputer. Babbage invented computer K 75%, S 16,67%, T 2,78%, ST 5,56% b. Babbage invented the computer. (Krifka et al. c. This morning Fred invented a pumpkin-crusher. A new kind (Geurts 2001) d. MIT Media Lab wynalazło uciekający budzik. MIT Media Lab invented running alarm clock N 11,11% K 85,19%, a running sub-type of a device alarm clock 3,70% e. Wrocławski naukowiec wynalazł lek na alergię. Wrocław-adj scientist invented medicine for alergy N 11,11%, K 5,56%, S 0%, T 83,33%, ST 0%
BPs as objects of the past tense form of wynaleźć – invent 4.a. Babbage wynalazł komputery. A: 28,57% N: 71,43% Babbage invented computers N 33,33%, K 38,89%, S 19,44%, T 2,78% ST 5,56 b. Johns wynalazł silniki dwusuwowe. A: 33,33%, N: 66,67% Johns invented engines double stroke N 22,22%, K 54,63%, S 20,37%, ST 2,78% c. *Babbage invented computers. On kind reading d. Shockley invented transistors. On taxonomic reading only (Krifka et al. 1995)
Observations (2) BSs acceptable as objects of wynaleźć – invent, BPs show degraded acceptability BSs opt for the K reading BPs show more variation, although they prefer the K reading over the S reading
BPs as subjects of the present tense form of wyginąć – die out 5.a. Gdy człowiek wycina drzewa w celu przygotowania gruntu pod uprawę, when man cuts down trees in purpose preparing soil for cultivation wówczas rośliny, ssaki, ptaki, gady i owady wymierają. then plants mammals birds reptiles insects die out N 11,11%, K 30,56%, S 25,00%, T 22,22%, ST 11,11% b. Nie uwierzylibyście, gdybym powiedziała, że lwy są na wyginięciu. not believe-subj if said that lions are on extinction K 52,78%, S 33,33%, ST 13,89% c. Wymierają ryby oceanicznych głębin. die out fish oceanic depths K 23,15%, S 46,30%, T 16,67%, ST 13,89% d. The lions are becoming extinct.On taxonomic reading (Dayal 2003: 26-7) Variation in interpretation choices: The K reading the most prominent for the basic level term The S reading the most prominent for the lower level term The T reading the most prominent for the higher level term
BPs as subjects of the future tense form of wyginąć – die out 6.a. Zwierzęta mogą wyginąć zanim zostaną dokładnie zbadane. animals can die out before become thoroghly investigated N 10%, K 7,50%, S 45%, T 10%, ST 27,50% b. Wyginą motyle? die out butterflies N 30%, K 50%, S 10%, ST 10% c. Niedźwiedzie polarne i foki mogą wyginąć w ciągu 20 lat. bears polar and seals can die out within 20 years K 53,70%, S 34,26%, ST 12,04% The K reading the most prominent for the basic level terms The S reading the most prominent for the higher level term The ST reading the most prominent for the higher level term
BSs as subjects of the future tense form of wyginąć – die out 7.a. Ekolodzy boją się, że zwierzę wyginie, zanim uda się potwierdzić ecologists fear that animal will die out before mange confirm odkrycie. discovery N 20%, S 30%, T 50% b. Jesiotr może wyginąć na skutek nielegalnego pozyskiwania ikry. sturgeon can die out as result illegal getting roe N 11,11%, K 64,81%, S 14,81%, ST 9,26% c. Dziki łosoś bałtycki jest zagrożony i może wyginąć w ciągu kilku lat. wild salmon baltic is threatened and can die out within a few years K 68,52%, S 14,81%, T 11,11%, ST 5,56% The K reading the most prominent for lower and basic level terms The T reading the most prominent for the higher level term The S reading the most prominent for the higher level term
BPs as subjects of the present tense forms of the equivalents of be common 8.a. Mimo, że komputery są rozpowszechnione, niewiele osób wie, despite that computers are spread few people know jak postępować w przypadku uszkodzenia komputera. how act in case defect computer N 16,67%, K 4,63%, S 57, 41%, T 1,85%, ST 19,44% b. Pospolite są tam termity, które w bałtyckim bursztynie są common are there termites which in baltic amber are rzadkie. rare N 22,22%, K 21,30%, S 43,52%, T 1,85%, ST 11,11% Similar acceptability values The most prominent reading is the S reading Next, ST for the basic level term and K for the lower level term
BSs as subjects of the present tense forms of Polish equivalents of be common and of be rare 9.a. W Polsce telefon komórkowy jest powszechny już od ładnych In Poland phone cell is common already since good kilku lat. a few years N 11,11%, K 42,59%, S 38,89%, ST 7,41% b. Lis jest rzadko spotykany w tych lasach. fox is rarely encountered in those forests K 41,67%, S 36,11%, T 11,11%, ST 11,11% c. The tiger is common in these parts. Choices fairly evenly distributed between the K and S readings The ST reading marginal for both BSs and the T reading marginal for a natural kind lis – fox
BPs as subjects of ewoluować – evolve 10. a. Skorupiaki ewoluowały równocześnie. crustaceans evolved simultaneously N 22,22%, K 14,81%, S 26,85%, ST 36,11% b. Psy domowe ewoluowały na przestrzeni wieków. dogs home evolved on area ages K 25,00%, S 30,56%, T 11,11%, ST 33,33% c. Okazało się, ze muszki ewoluują… turned out that flies evolve K 33,33%, S 43,33%, ST 23,33% d. *Crustaceans evolved simultaneously. (Wilkinson 1991) e. The crustaceans evolved simultaneously....an episodic statement, (...) denotes the sum of the sub-kinds in the actual world... (Dayal 2003: 26-7, ) The K and S readings obtained the highest number of choices for the lower level term. The ST reading was the highest for the higher level term.
Opague verbs and quantified NPs 11. Magda chce pogadać z młodym/i psychologiem/ami Magda wants talk with young psychologist/s BS 24% for wide scope, 76% for narrow scope BP 67% for wide scope, 33% for narrow scope while BP for wide scope. 12. Każdy przeczytał książkę/i o czarownicach. every read book/s about witches BS 33% for wide scope, 67% for narrow scope BP 54% for wide scope, 46% for narrow scope Both BS and BP are ambiguous, on par with English indefinite singulars, with BS showing strong preference for narrow scope, while BP showing only slight preference for wide scope. Again, this is in contrast to English BPs which only take narrow scope.
Quantified adverbials 13.a. Pies był wszędzie. dog was everywhere b. Psy były wszędzie dogs were everywhere BS 13,3% for wide scope, 12,2% for narrow scope with respect to time and place, 74,4% for narrow scope (with respect to place at one time point) BP 37% for wide scope, 63% for narrow scope Polish BSs and BPs pattern with English BPs with respect to the preference for narrow scope. English indefinite singulars only get a bizarre wide scope reading.
Time adverbials 14.a. Kot był tu od czasów Kolumba. cat was here since times Columbus b. Koty były od czasów Kolumba. cats were here since times Columbus BS 39% for wide scope, 61% for narrow scope BP 13% for wide scope, 87% for narrow scope Polish BSs and BPs pattern with English BPs with respect to the preference for narrow scope. English indefinite singulars get a wide scope reading (a bizarre one in this context?).
Anaphora 15. a. Kasia szuka jednorożca i Marysia szuka go też. Katie looks for unicorn and Maggie looks for him too b. Kasia szuka jednorożca i Marysia też szuka takiego zwierzęcia. Katie looks for unicorn and Maggie too looks for such animal c. Kasia szuka jednorożców i Marysia szuka ich też. Katie looks for unicorns and Maggie looks for them too BS and pronoun 46% for wide scope, 9% for narrow scope, 45% for activity BS and such animal 13% for wide scope, 24% for narrow scope, 62% for activity BP 29% for wide scope, 16% for narrow scope, 55% for activity English indefinite singulars get only a wide scope reading in the case of personal pronoun anaphora. BSs show preference for activity regardless of the nature of the anaphora, which contrasts with the behaviour of English singular indefinites, which allow for it only in the case of one anaphora on par with narrow scope. In sharp contrast to English BPs which allow for narrow scope only, in the case of Polish BPs narrow scope is the least preferred reading, the strongest is the activity, while wide scope receives the value intermediate between the other two.
Accomplishments 16. a. *John built houses in a month. Janek z/budował domy w miesiąc. imperf BP 14% for wide scope, 86% for narrow scope perf BP 65% for wide scope, 35% for narrow scope A very strong preference for narrow scope with imperf and a strong one for wide scope with perf, which is predicted in view of minimal marking tendency b. ??Max discovered a rabbit in his yard for two hours. c. ??Max discovered several/lots of/those/most/few/sm rabbits in his yard for two hours. d. Max discovered rabbits in his yard for two hours. e. Mateusz znajdował króliczka/kilka/wiele/mnóstwo/dwadzieścia króliczków w swoim ogrodzie przez 2 godziny. BS 85% for wide scope, 15% for narrow scope Quantified NP 49% for wide scope, 51% for narrow scope English indefinite singulars are unacceptable. BS contrasts with quantified NPs in the very strong preference for wide scope.
Accomplishments 17. a. John discovered fleas on his dog for six weeks. b. Mateusz znajdował króliczki w swoim ogrodzie przez 2 godziny. BP 26% for wide scope, 74% for narrow scope b. Tourists discovered that quaint little village for years. c. Turyści *odkryli/odkrywali tę osobliwą małą wioskę przez lata. BP 34% for wide scope, 66% for narrow scope Polish BP patterns with English BP with respect to the preference for narrow scope.
Negation 18. a. Książka nie leży na półce. N 5%, W 95% book not lie on shelf b. Na półce nie leży książka. N 20%, N 35%, W 45% on shelf not lie book c. Książki nie leżą na półce. N 25%, W 75% books not lie on shelf d. Na półce nie leżą książki. N 10%, N 85 %, W 5% on shelf not lie books 19. a. Janek nie czytał książki. John not read book obj BS exist under the scope of neg 12%, exist scoping over neg 88% English indefinite singulars ambiguous b. Janek nie czytał książek. John not read books obj BP exist under the scope of neg 61%, exist scoping over neg 39% English BP under the scope of negation Polish BS and BP objects contrast when negated. BS shows preference for wide scope while BP for narrow scope on par with English BP, but, crucially, wide scope is also available for Polish BPs and it is not that marginal. Carlson (1977) reported that English indefinite singulars can be interpreted both under the scope of negation and out of it, whereas bare plurals only under the scope of negation. Polish pattern can be treated as a reverse of the English one: BPs are ambiguous, whereas BSs show very high preference for one reading namely the wide scope.
Conclusions Where Polish BSs and BPs pattern together: universally quantified NPs – preference for narrow scope implicit quantifiers of time adverbials preference for narrow scope anaphora preference for activity Where Polish BSs and BPs pattern with English BPs: universally quantified NPs – preference for narrow scope implicit quantifiers of time adverbials preference for narrow scope moreover, Polish BPs imperf achievement preference for narrow scope Object negation preference for narrow scope (!but wide scope also available) Where Polish BSs and BPs contrast: Opaque verbs BS narrow scope, BP wide scope Object negation BS wide scope BP narrow scope Where Polish and English BPs contrast: Opaque verbs – Polish wide scope, English narrow scope universally quantified NPs - English narrow scope, Polish ambiguous anaphora - English narrow scope, Polish 1.activity, 2. wide scope, 3. narrow scope Where Polish BSs and BPs contrast with English BPs: Anaphora - English narrow scope, Polish 1.activity, 2. wide scope, 3. narrow scope