2BAAL SZEM TOW PROPERLY: IZRAEL BEN ELIEZER HEBR. THE MAN OF GOOD NAME
3Most tales about his life are legendary in their nature… BIOGRAPHYBaal Szem TowWas born in the year 1700 in Okopy (Holy Trinity Trenches) and died in 1760 in Międzybórz (Medzhybizh). He was a plebeian mystic, a miracle man and the first teacher of Polish Hasidism.Most tales about his life are legendary in their nature…
5DOCTRINEAn ecstatic prayer was most important in connection with rapid body movements.A prayer is the cleanest and the most perfect way of life.A belief in his being a real intermediary between heaven and4. Conviction that he can excuse each sinner and that he can contempt each sinner, for instance for rejecting his teaching.5. Practising mystical “adhering” to God during everyday activities, eg. eating.Praktykowan
6„REVALATION”When he was barely over twenty years old he went to the Carpathian Mountains in order to prepare himself spiritually for “revelation”- which was announcing a mission – through strict asceticism. He worked physically excavating clay, which was sold by his wife. When he was 36 years old, his revelation appeared as Baal Shem Tov – he healed a demoniac. In spring 1739 he attempted to reach the Holy Land, yet he never managed to get there and after nearly a one year stay in Istanbul he came back to Podole (Podolia).
8MISSIONBesht claimed that through his teaching he was to lead the world to salvation. It was a role traditionally ascribed to Elias. Basht manifested his identification with this prophet. He did not give speeches, and in synagogues he only said prayers
11From hebrew: „Pious, faithful to God ” ChasidismFrom hebrew: „Pious, faithful to God ”
12The genesis Born in XVII in Wołyń and Podole Lack of one geographic center
13Spiritual orientation Hasidic groupsSpiritual communityPerson of leaderWay of lifeSocial identitySpiritual orientation
14Attitude to Baal Shem Tov Unifying elementsAttitude to Baal Shem TovIdentification of the spiritual heritage of Baal Shem TovTzaddikPerson inspirated by GodFrom Hebrew: fairChasidic communityNew social structure nad way of lifeAhavat chawerim- „brotherly love”
15Attitude towards hasidism The followersThe opponents
16The opponents Paying less attencion to studing Tora Ignored religeus authoritySetting new elemets to liturgyEating unkosher meatVersion of a heresy
17The followers New social relation between all jewish community Fundamwntal ideas of relations God- believers (devoted oneself to God, love to God)Relations between members of hasidic’s groupNew social relation between all jewish community
19BIBLIOGRAFIATomaszewski Jerzy, Żbikowski Andrzej, Żydzi w Polsce leksykon, historia i kultura, Warszawa 2001.Bobrzyńska Zofia, Żebrowski Rafał, Polski słownik judaistyczny, dzieje, kultura, religia, ludzie. Warszawa 2003Alina Cała, Hanna Węgrzynek, Gabriela Zalewska, Słownik Historia i kultura żydów polskich, Warszawa 2000.Michała Galasa, Światło i słońce . Studia z dziejów chasydyzmu, Kraków 2006Doktór Jan, Baal Szem Tow. Próba nowego spojrzenia, Kwartalnik Historii Żydów, 2002 nr 4.Marc- Alain Ouaknin, Chasydzi, Warszawa 2002.Tommasz Jelonek, Chasydzi radośni mistycy żydowscy, Kraków 2007.