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Dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Institute of Administrative Studies University of Wrocław Nature of organizations.

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Prezentacja na temat: "Dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Institute of Administrative Studies University of Wrocław Nature of organizations."— Zapis prezentacji:

1 dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Institute of Administrative Studies University of Wrocław Nature of organizations

2 dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Why study organizations? Organizations are a dominant component of con- temporary society. We have become a society of organizations: organizations surround us we are born in organizations and usually die in them our life space in between is filled with organizations organizations are as inevitable as death and taxes Organizations have absorbed society.

3 Organizations have outcomes: for individuals for categories of individuals for communities for society Why study organizations?

4 Nature of organizations organizations do things that individuals cannot do by themselves organizations do almost everything that is done in the contemporary society Why do we have organizations? dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

5 Nature of organizations Oliver E. Williamson (b. 1932): Organizations develop to take the place of markets, where people could barter, trade, or purchase goods and services. In this framework, markets and organizations are alterna- tive ways to get things done. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

6 Nature of organizations New forms of organizations Networks (formed by organizations working together in joint ventures in areas in which single organizations do not have resources to proceed on their own). An example: European Competition Network. Virtual organizations (formed when organizational members are in contact with each other via Internet or other media). An example: International Competition Net- work – ICN. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

7 Nature of organizations Not everything (and it is good!) is organizational our feelings and emotions are our own, even though they are in part shaped by our organizational experiences our family relationships are not organizational as well dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

8 Nature of organizations The definition of organizations Ricky W. Griffin: An organization is a group of people working together in a structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals. All organizations, regardless of whether they are large or small, profit-seeking or not-for-profit, domestic or multi- national, use some combination of human, financial, phy- sical and information resources to achieve their goals. These resources are generally obtained from the organi- zations environment. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

9 Nature of organizations Richard H. Hall, Pamela S. Tolbert: An organization is a collectivity with a relatively identifi- able boundary, a normative order (rules), ranks of autho- rity (hierarchy), communications systems, and member- ship coordinating systems (procedures); this collectivity exists on a relatively continuous basis, in environments, and engages in activities that are usually related to a set of goals; the activities have outcomes for organizational members, for the organization itself, and for society. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

10 Nature of organizations Tadeusz Kotarbiński, The ABC of Practica-lity, transl. Adam Szpaderski, Olsztyn 2006: The word organisation may be used in at least three different ways: either as the name of an object possessing some system, or as the name of this very system of the object itself, id est a system of relations con- necting mutually its parts and these parts with a whole, or finally, as the act which consists in giving a similarly understood system to the object, in other words, the name of the act of organising. As a matter of fact, every complex object possesses some system, so it is an orga- nisation in the primary meaning of the word […]. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

11 Nature of organizations Pojęcie organizacji znaczenie czynnościowe (czynność organizowania, czyli organizowanie) znaczenie rzeczowe (rzecz zorganizowana, w szczegól- ności złożona z ludzi, wspólnych celów i zasobów) znaczenie atrybutowe (cecha rzeczy, ale i procesu, po- legająca na tym, że składniki rzeczy lub procesu współ- przyczyniają się do powodzenia całości) dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

12 Nature of organizations dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Each organization requires management. Organizations and management are as inseparable as Mary and her little lamb.

13 Nature of organizations Mary Had a Little Lamb by Sarah J. Hale, 1830 Mary had a little lamb, Its fleece was white as snow; And everywhere that Mary went, The lamb was sure to go. He followed her to school one day; That was against the rule; It made the children laugh and play; To see a lamb at school. And so the teacher turned it out, But still it lingered near, And waited patiently about Till Mary did appear. "Why does the lamb love Mary so?" The eager children cry; "Why, Mary loves the lamb, you know," The teacher did reply. Sarah J. Hale, force to leave / send away dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

14 Organizations and individuals individual as an employee new forms of employment individual as a customer or a client economic dimensions of employment social dimensions in organizations changes in organizations

15 Nature of organizations Organizations and individuals 1.Individuals as employees of organizations. Peoples re- actions to their work result from the individuals own expectations and the characteristics of the employing organization (work in organizations is not necessarily deadening to the individual). Neither organizations nor individuals can be easily changed to yield consistent positive reactions. 2.New forms of employment in organizations: part-time work nonpermanent work home based work / telecommuting dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

16 Nature of organizations 3.Individuals as organizations customers or clients. Those who come to organizations for products or services and are not totally satisfied with what they receive create consumer and client-advocacy organiza- tions. 4.Economic aspects of working in organizations. People have an obvious economic stake in the organizations in which they work. Organizations affect the economic well-being of workers and hence also their depen- dents. 5.Social aspects of working in organizations. Organiza- tions are key actors in the social stratification system. 6.Changes in organizations. Worker-friendly and family- friendly policies (job-sharing, flextime, and so on). dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

17 Nature of organizations Balanced life Nick Halping: A balanced life is one where we spread our energy and effort – emotional, intellectual, imaginative, spiritual and physical – between key areas of importance (see the diagram in the next slide). The neglect of one or more areas, or anchor points, may threaten the vitality of the whole. The term work-life balance was first coined in 1986 in reaction to the unhealthy choices that many Americans were making in favor of the work place, as they opted to neglect family, friends and leisure activities in the pursuit of corporate goals. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

18 Nature of organizations Nick Halping: dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

19 Nature of organizations dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Categories of individuals Categories of individuals are differentially affected by the organizations in which they work (e.g. organizations can have and have had policies regarding hiring and promo- tion aimed at specific categories of individuals: the glass ceiling or No Irish Need Apply).

20 Nature of organizations Categories of individuals The especially important categories of individuals are: gender age race ethnicity disability religion education and skills weight (excessive weight) addictions sexual orientation dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

21 Nature of organizations Glass ceiling U.S. Department of Labor, 1991: Artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management-level po- sitions. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

22 Nature of organizations Kodeks pracy Art § 1. Pracodawca jest obowiązany przeciwdziałać mobbin- gowi. § 2. Mobbing oznacza działania lub zachowania dotyczące pracownika lub skierowane przeciwko pracownikowi, pole- gające na uporczywym i długotrwałym nękaniu lub zastra- szaniu pracownika, wywołujące u niego zaniżoną ocenę przydatności zawodowej, powodujące lub mające na celu poniżenie lub ośmieszenie pracownika, izolowanie go lub wyeliminowanie z zespołu współpracowników. Non-sexual harassment – mobbing dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

23 Nature of organizations unwanted non-verbal attention offensive language unwanted physical contact of a sexual nature socialization or date requests sexual propositions that did not involve threats or promises sexual propositions involving promises of positive job- related consequences sexual propositions involving threats of adverse job- related consequences sexual assault Sexual harassment dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

24 Nature of organizations Pierwsza sprawa sądowa związana z molestowaniem seksualnym miała miejsce w USA w 1976 r. Wcześniej termin sexual harassment nie pojawiał się nawet w mediach. Prawdziwym przełomem było głośne wydarzenie z 1991 r., kiedy A.F. Hill oskarżyła nominowanego na stanowisko sędziego Sądu Najwyższego USA C. Thomasa o napa- stowanie seksualne w latach 80., kiedy był jej przełożonym w Komisji ds. Równouprawnienia w Zatrudnieniu (The Equal Employment Op- portunity Commission): A.F. Hill charged that C. Thomas harassed her with inappropriate discussion of sexual acts and pornographic films after she rebuffed his invitations to date her. Z drugiej strony jeden z pierwszych przypadków molestowania seksu- alnego został opisany już w Księdze Rodzaju: chodziło o Józefa za- rządzającego majątkiem Potyfara i szantażowanego seksualnie przez jego żonę, zob. Pierwsza Księga Mojżeszowa, 39, Sexual harassment dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

25 Nature of organizations W Polsce Kodeks pracy zakazuje w art. 18 3a między innymi dyskryminowania pracowników ze względu na płeć, do którego zalicza: każde nieakceptowane zachowanie o charakterze seksual- nym lub odnoszące się do płci pracownika, którego celem lub skutkiem jest naruszenie godności lub poniżenie albo upokorzenie pracownika; na zachowanie to mogą się skła- dać fizyczne, werbalne lub pozawerbalne elementy (mole- stowanie seksualne). Sexual harassment dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

26 Nature of organizations dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat No Irish Need Apply by John F. Poole, 1862 I'm a decent boy just landed From the town of Ballyfad; I want a situation, yes, old-fash a job; position in work And want it very bad. I have seen employment advertised, "It's just the thing," says I, "But the dirty spalpeen ended with 'No Irish Need Apply.' "Whoa," says I, "that's an insult, But to get the place I'll try," So I went to see the blackguard old-fash a man of completely dishonorable character With his "No Irish Need Apply." Some do count it a misfortune To be christened Pat or Dan, But to me it is an honor To be born an Irishman. I started out to find the house, I got it mighty soon; There I found the old chap seated, He was reading the Tribune. I told him what I came for, When he in a rage did fly, "No!" he says, "You are a Paddy, infml an Irishman (often considered offensive) And no Irish need apply." (…)

27 Nature of organizations Organizations and the community Organizations have outcomes not only for individuals and categories of individuals but also for the communities or localities in which they operate. In the case of powerful organizations (organizational inhabitants) the impact on the local community can be great and… dramatic. They may literally, for example moving to other areas, destroy the community.

28 Nature of organizations What is important under these circumstances is the degree to which organizations encourage their managers to participate in community affairs. Mission of GKN Automotive Driveline Division, August 1997: Our mission is to (…) contribute positively to the communities in which we operate. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

29 Nature of organizations DW: Renault zainwestował miliard dolarów w Rosji. Jakie ma pan pla- ny związane z tym krajem? CG: Mamy fabrykę pod Moskwą, drugą teraz budujemy pod Sankt Pe- tersburgiem. Kupiliśmy także 25 proc. plus jedną akcję zakładu To- gliatti, gdzie będą produkowane na początku wyłacznie Łady […] DW: Togliatti to fabryka-miasto, jedyny pracodawca. Czy zdaje pan sobie sprawę, że kupił pan fabrykę razem z drużyną hokejową, zorga- nizowaną przestępczością, całym bagażem problemów społecznych? Czy ma pan już program rewitalizacji tego miasta? CG: Kupiliśmy tylko jedną czwartą fabryki i mam nadzieję, że nie wią- żą się z tym zobowiązania dotyczące zarządzania miastem. Jesteśmy gotowi pomóc w unowocześnieniu produkcji platform, skrzyni biegów, w rozwiązywaniu kłopotów z jakością, ale odpowiedzialność za miasto pozostawiamy władzom. Biedniejsze rynki nie chcą małych aut. Carlos Ghosn. Z prezesem Nissan/Renault rozmawia Danuta Wale- wska, Rzeczpospolita, nr 59 z 10 marca 2008 r. dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

30 Nature of organizations dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat Organizations and the society If organizations have important outcomes for in- dividuals and communities, it is obvious that they also have important outcomes for the wider society or environment in which they are em- bedded. It must be recognized that there is reciprocal re- lationship between organizations and their envi- ronment. The dominant contemporary theories regarding management stress the central role of environments for the operations of organiza- tions: the environments of organizations are viewed as a major determinant of the structure and processes of organizations. But one can turn this line of reasoning around and consider the impacts of organizations on their environment.

31 Nature of organizations lobbying (organizations are active participants in the development and implementation of governmental policy) harmful impacts of organizations organizations as change agents organizations as resisters of change

32 Harmful organizational impacts normal accidents criminal acts coercing to crimes facilitating crimes use of cheap labor in the third world countries contributing to obesity in society harmful outcomes produced by public organizations

33 Nature of organizations Disasters experienced by organizations (corporate tragedies) Johnson & Johnson and product tampering in 1982 Procter & Gamble ( ) and accusations (in 1994 and 1999) of financing the Church of Satan McDonalds and accusations of cutting down rain forests in the Amazon river basin dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat


35 Objawienie św. Jana; 13, 18, zdanie trzecie: A liczba jego jest sześćset sześćdziesiąt sześć.

36 Nature of organizations Organizations and social change internal change and the social change the organization as a change agent organizations as resisters to change dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

37 Nature of organizations The case of the Womens Christian Temperance Union – WCTU WCTU dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

38 debauchery – rozpusta ruin – ruina misery – nędza despair – rozpacz death – śmierć poverty – ubóstwo disgrace – hańba madness – szaleństwo disease – choroba damnation – potępienie

39 Not only daddy is in there… Please pay your attention to the text at the bottom of the poster.

40 American federal agents pour out alcoholic beverages (intoxicating liquor) during prohibition ( ). No person […] shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor [...].

41 Poster calling to vote YES in national referendum for prohibition of intoxicating beverages in Sweden held on the 27th of August 1922.

42 Concluding remark Organization can never be a substitute for initiative and for judgment. Louis D. Brandeis ( ) dr. hab. Jerzy Supernat

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