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© Boardworks Ltd 2003. A slide contains teachers notes wherever this icon is displayed - To access these notes go to Notes Page View (PowerPoint 97) or.

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Prezentacja na temat: "© Boardworks Ltd 2003. A slide contains teachers notes wherever this icon is displayed - To access these notes go to Notes Page View (PowerPoint 97) or."— Zapis prezentacji:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

2 A slide contains teachers notes wherever this icon is displayed - To access these notes go to Notes Page View (PowerPoint 97) or Normal View (PowerPoint 2000). Normal ViewNotes Page View Teachers Notes Flash Files A flash file has been embedded into the PowerPoint slide wherever this icon is displayed – These files are not editable.

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 The physical states of matter stany skupienia materii At normal temperature almost all substances exist in one of three physical states: Liquids ciekły Gases gazowy Solids stały

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Look at the following substances. Decide whether they exist as a solid, liquid or gas. Tree drzewo Cloud chmura ice lolly Lizak lodowy Oxygen tlen Butter masło orange juice Sok pomarańczowy Desk biurko Bleach wybielacz Coal węgiel Perfume perfum Steam para Shampoo szampon

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Aluminium, argon, ethanol (alcohol), iron (żelazo), lead (ołów), mercury (rtęć), radium (rad), tin (cyna) Liquid Metal Solid used in aircraft Solid used to coat steel cans Intoxicating liquid Radioactive solid Solid that rusts Un-reactive gas Solid used by Ancient Roman plumbers M M ercury A A luminium T T in E E thanol R R adium I I ron A A rgon L L ead Match each substance to the correct column in the table. When you have got it all correct the first letter of each substance will spell a word that is important in this unit.

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Kinetic Theory The existence of solids, liquids and gases is explained by the kinetic theory. This is based on the following ideas: 1.All substances are made up of particles (atoms, ions and molecules). 2.That these particles are attracted to each other, some strongly and others weakly. kinetic 3.That these particles move around (i.e. have kinetic energy). 4.That their kinetic energy increases with temperature.

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Teoria kinetyczna Istnienie stanów skupienia: stałego, ciekłego i gazowego wyjaśnia teoria kinetyczna: 1.Wszystkie substancje utworzone są z cząsteczek (atomów, jonów I molekuł) 2. Cząsteczki przyciągają się wzajemnie słabiej lub mocniej 3. Cząsteczki poruszają się (posiadają energię kinetyczną) 4. Ich energia kinetyczna wzrasta ze wzrostem temperatury

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Particle arrangements: solids This animation shows a 2-D view of the motion of the atoms in a 3-D solid.

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Particle arrangements: liquids This animation shows a 2-D view of the motion of the atoms in a liquid. There is no order.

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Particle arrangements: gases

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

12 Właściwości - gęstość Ciało stałecieczgaz Cząsteczki blisko Cząsteczki blisko Cząsteczki oddalone siebiesiebieod siebie Wysoka gestośćWysoka gestośćniska gestość

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2003

14 PlynneNie moga byc sprezoneMoze byc sprezone Nie jest plynnePrzyjmuje ksztalt dna pojemnika Zachowuje swoj ksztalt Przyjmuje ksztalt calego pojemnika Stala objetosc Nie ma okreslonej pojemnosci Cialo staleCieczGaz

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Diffusion 1 Diffusion is the movement of one type of particle into and through another. For example, the smell of after-shave or perfume diffuses across a room. Can you explain these facts? Diffusion occurs both in liquids and gases but hardly at all in solids. It happens more quickly for gases than for liquids. It happens more quickly at warm temperatures than at cooler temperatures. Insects communicate by smells that diffuse through the air.

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Dyfuzja dyfuzja to ruch czasteczek jednego typu do i poprzez czasteczki innego typu. Np.zapach wody kolonskiej lub perfumu rozprzetrzenia sie w calym pomieszczeniu Mozesz wyjasnic te fakty? dyfuzja zachodzi w cieczach jak i w gazach, ale niemal nigdy w cialach stalych proces ten zachodzi szybciej w gazach niz w cieczach szybciej zachodzi w wyzszych temperaturach niz nizszych

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Diffusion 2

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Diffusion 3 Here is the result of a simple experiment in which two gases diffuse towards each other in a glass tube. When they meet they react to form a cloud of smoke. Cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution Cotton wool soaked in hydrochloric acid (concentrated) The smoke forms nearer to one end than the other. Which particles are moving faster: ammonia or acid? Can you suggest a possible reason for this? Ammonia particles are lighter and so, at any given temperature, move faster.

19 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Crossword Across: 2 Change from liquid to solid 5 Force caused by collisions of particles 6 Arranged in a 3 dimensional pattern 9 Spacing of particles in solids and liquids 10 All substances are this state at very low temperatures 11 Only liquids and gases do this Down:1 "Heavy3 Change from gas to liquid4 Change from solid to liquid6 State with particles close but disorganised 7 Particles widely spread out8 Change from liquid to gas

20 © Boardworks Ltd Which of the diagrams represents a liquid evaporating? Który rysunek przedstawia parującą ciecz? B AD C

21 © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Acompressible, fluid Bnon-compressible, fluid Ccompressible, no fixed shape Dnon-compressible, very low density 2.Which of the following describes a liquid? Które z ponizszych stwierdzeń opisuje ciecz?

22 © Boardworks Ltd Which of these is only true for a gas? Które z ponizszych stwierdzen opisuje gaz? Acan flow Bexerts pressure on its container Cwill occupy the whole of the container it is placed in Dhas no shape of its own


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