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Sources of information on climate "proxy data" – indirect data on phenomenas related to climate Biological Geomorphological Physical Artefacts.

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Prezentacja na temat: "Sources of information on climate "proxy data" – indirect data on phenomenas related to climate Biological Geomorphological Physical Artefacts."— Zapis prezentacji:

1 Sources of information on climate "proxy data" – indirect data on phenomenas related to climate Biological Geomorphological Physical Artefacts

2 Physical....

3 Isotopes Atomic nucleus occupies only tiny part of the whole atom. Nucleus consists on nucleons: protons – with a positive electric charge, and neutrons – electrically neutral. The electric charges of proton and electron are equall. The mass of nucleons is about 2000 times bigger than mass of electron, the mass of proton is slightly bigger than the mass of proton (neutron = proton + electron) Atoms with the same number of protons, but differ with the number of neutrons are called isotopes Atomic number of element represents the number of protons in its nucleus. Mass number of element represents the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in its nucleus. Mass number Atomic number Element symbol

4 Isotope measurements Some elements can have several stable isotopes – different types of atoms with different numbers of neutrons. (Number of protons in the nucleus define the element, number of neutrons define the isotope). The more neutrons in the nuclues the haviers the atmos. There are three stable isotopes of hydrogen, they are called: hydrogen(H), deuterium (D) i tritium (T). Here are also two stable isotopes of oxygen:

5 The particle of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. In relation of their isotopes three different water particles can be found: H 2 18 O, H 2 16 O and HD 16 O Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) consists in 99,76% of H 2 16 O, in 0,2% of H 2 18 O and in 0,03% of HD 16 O.

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7 The snow falling of Greenland glaciers has 18 O in the range The snow falling of Antarctic glaciers has 18 O in the range In the case of HDO:

8 Ratio 18 O/ 16 O Isotope 16 O is lighter and evaporates faster than 18 O. In normal conditions it returns to ocean together with precipitation. In glacial times 16 O is trapped in the ice and a relative increase of 18 O is observed in oceans. In warm periods, ice melts and the percentage of 16 O increases.

9 How can we use oxygen isotopes to tell air temperature in the distant past? In high latitude climates the 18 O concentration in precipitation varies linearly with mean annual temperature. Assuming this relationship holds for the distant past, the 18 O record in ice cores can therefore be used as a proxy for mean annual temperature at the time of precipitation of the snow on the glacier.

10 During evaporation, the vapor, and hence clouds and precipitation, are poorer in 18 O water than the rest of the water left behind. Precipitation preferentially removes more 18 O, so later precipitation is still poorer in 18 O. The tops of icecaps, which are cold and at high elevation, receive the most 18 O-poor water as precipitation. 18 O in ice therefore records air temperature. In contrast, the oceans accumulate excess 18 O as 18 O-poor water is transferred to the ice sheets. The more ice, the richer the water becomes in 18 O. Foraminifera and other organisms growing from the water also become richer in 18 O, so their skeletons in ocean sediment record the 18 O concentration in sea water and so, indirectly, record ice volume. Ice and ocean sediment records are therefore complementary, each supplying different information about ice and ice formation.

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12 Volcanic eruptions leave dust and acids on the surface of glaciers. High winds over dry land blow dust onto glaciers. High winds over open ocean water produces lots of sea salt spray that can also become incorporated into glacial ice. The snow and ice itself contain oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and bubbles of trapped air. All these can be analyzed to get an idea of what is going on around the mass of glacial ice.

13 Ice cores

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15 History of Earth climate can be reconstructed on the basis of analysis of ice cores on Greenland and Anctarctic. Temperatures from measurements of oxygen isotopes. Temperatures from measurements of oxygen isotopes. Greenhouse gases in air bubbles trapped in ice cores. Greenhouse gases in air bubbles trapped in ice cores. What we know about greenhouse gases Climatic records in ice cores

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19 Lomonosovfonna drilled in April m deep, about 800 yrs Project participants: Norway, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Estonia Holtedahlfonna (Snøfjellafonna) drilled in April m deep, about 400 yrs Project participants: Norway, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Estonia Svalbard drill sites Austfonna drilled in 1998 and m deep, about 800 yrs Project participants: Japan, Norway Ice cores and climate Ice cores and climate Elisabeth Isaksson Dmitry Divine

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21 Methods of Dating Ice Cores Stratigraphy Annual layers Ratio of 18 O / 16 O Electrical conductivity methods Using volcanic eruptions as Markers –Marker: volcanic ash and chemicals washed out of the atmosphere by precipitation –use recorded volcanic eruptions to calibrate age of the ice-core –must know date of the eruption

22 Using specific events for dating ice cores Using specific events for dating ice cores Examples from Svalbard ice cores Kekonen and others, 2002Pinglot and others, 2003 Volcanic eruptions Nuclear weapon tests Laki 1783 Ice cores and climate Ice cores and climate Elisabeth Isaksson Dmitry Divine

23 Depth –age relationship Ice cores have layer thinning due to pure shear which means that if sample size is consistant the number per time unit will decrease with depth Ice cores and climate Ice cores and climate Elisabeth Isaksson Dmitry Divine

24 Oldest ever ice cores origin from Antarctica

25 Last Glacial Maximum

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30 czas (lata BP) CO 2 (ppm) Antarctica SST (°C) Tropical Pacific CO 2 concentration and temperature

31 time (thousand years BP) Sea Level (m) Sea level during last years SST (°C) Tropical Pacific

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39 growing glaciers deep-sea foraminifera Water isotopes in deep-sea cores The Ice Volume effect- Light isotope removed from ocean, locked into large ice sheets. Ocean d 18 O shift (+1.5) recorded in marine carbonates that grew during glacial. SPECMAP – standard benthic d18O record, used to date marine sediments of unknown age shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~kcobb/isochem/lectures/lecture8.ppt

40 Coral records of paleo-precipitation Theory: 1) more rain = lighter d 18 O amount effect 2) surface seawater d 18 O will become lighter 3) coral d 18 O lighter Cole and Fairbanks, 1990 shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~kcobb/isochem/lectures/lecture8.ppt

41 Water isotopes in speleothems (cave stalagmites) Theory: 1) δ 18 O of speleothem = δ 18 O of precipitation 2) δ 8 O of precipitation function of temperature (mid- to high-latitudes) and/or amount of rainfall (low latitudes) Wang et al., Science, 2001 shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~kcobb/isochem/lectures/lecture8.ppt

42 After: Reconstructing & simulating past climate variability., J.F. Gonzales Rouco

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44 Borehole temperature profiles in central Greenland

45 Dane historyczne zapiski dotyczące zbiorów, ceny zbóż daty zakwitania (np. wiśni w Japonii znane od ponad 1000 lat) warunki żeglugi (góry lodowe wokół Islandii) daty zamarzania jezior (Japonia) zapiski dotyczące pogody w starych kronikach kościelnych (kalendarzach) malarstwo jaskiniowe cechy charakterystyczne budowli opisy pogody

46 DOKUMENTY HISTORYCZNE

47 C. Pfister, R. Brazdil (2006) ceny zbóż

48 Brazdil i in., 2005

49 Na ścianie tego domu w Wertheim, w Niemczech istnieją ślady 24 zdarzeń wysokiej wody spowodowanej powodziami na Tauber i Renie Pfister

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51 Dziennik pogody Jan z Kunowic, 1538, Czechy

52 Dziennik pogody Marcina Biema

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54 potencjalne źródła informacji o temperaturze sprzed 1800 roku Jones, Osborn and Briffa (2001) Science

55 Potencjalne źródła informacji o wilgotności sprzed 1800 roku

56 Archivemeasurementselement InstrumentalDirectT, P, SLP HistoricalRecords/diaries etc.T, P, storms Tree ringsWidths Density Isotopes T, P T T, P Ice coresAccumulation Melt layers Isotopes Chemical composition P T T, P Circulation CoralsGrowth Isotopes Chemical composition SST, Salinity cavesAccumulation Isotopes P T, P Varves in lakesAccumulation Biological composition/pollen T T, P Varves in the oceanAccumulation Biological/chemical cmposition P T, P

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59 Źródła wiedzy o klimacie i środowisku Dane instrumentalne Dane historyczne Dane pośrednie Dane pośrednie rzadko niosą informację o jednym tylko elemencie pogody (klimatu). Odczytanie informacji wymaga datowania i kalibracji

60 Cape Spear Mariners logs, recording dates and positions of iceberg sightings

61 pierścienie przyrostów drzew proporcje izotopów tlenu 18 O/ 16 O w wapiennych muszlach mikroorganizmów oceanicznych skład powietrza uwięzionego w lodzie grenlandzkim i antarktycznym zasięgi gatunków o wyraźnych preferencjach klimatycznych

62 Western Brook Pond, Gros Morne Hearts Delight

63 Okres połowicznego rozpadu rozpad beta rozpad alfa W wyniku rozpadu beta otrzymujemy pierwiastek o wyższej liczbie atomowej w wyniku rozpadu alfa otrzymujemy pierwiastek o niższej liczbie atomowej

64 Fluktuacje długości Grosser Aletsch w Alpach Szwajcarskich w ciągu ostatnich 2000 lat. Brazdil i in. 2005

65 Datowanie za pomocą węgla C-14 powstawanie węgla C-14 w przyrodzie bombardowanie atmosfery przez promieniowanie kosmiczne Węgiel C-14 ulega rozpadowi beta okres połowicznego rozpadu węgla wynosi 5730 lat

66 Źródła wiedzy o klimacie w przeszłości "proxy data" – dane pośrednie o czynnikach zależnych od panujących warunków klimatycznych: pierścienie przyrostów drzew proporcje izotopów tlenu 18 O/ 16 O w wapiennych muszlach mikroorganizmów oceanicznych skład powietrza uwięzionego w lodzie grenlandzkim i antarktycznym zasięgi gatunków o wyraźnych preferencjach klimatycznych


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