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Nowe kierunki badań struktury nukleonu Andrzej Sandacz Instytut Problemów Jądrowych, Warszawa Seminarium Fizyki Wielkich Energii, Uniwersytet Warszawski.

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Prezentacja na temat: "Nowe kierunki badań struktury nukleonu Andrzej Sandacz Instytut Problemów Jądrowych, Warszawa Seminarium Fizyki Wielkich Energii, Uniwersytet Warszawski."— Zapis prezentacji:

1 Nowe kierunki badań struktury nukleonu Andrzej Sandacz Instytut Problemów Jądrowych, Warszawa Seminarium Fizyki Wielkich Energii, Uniwersytet Warszawski 12 stycznia 2007

2 Kierunki tradycyjne Rozkłady partonów Formfaktory nukleonów rozkłady prawdopodonieństw, niezależne od spinu bądź zależne od skrętności dla kwarków o różnych zapachach i dla gluonów dla ustalonej twardości oddziaływania, zależą tylko od 1 zmiennej: ułamka pedu nukleonu niesionego przez parton ( x Bj ) dostępne w: DIS, SIDIS, DY, twardych oddziaływaniach pp/ppbar, … elektryczne, magnetyczne, aksjalne, dziwności, … zależą tylko od 1 zmiennej: kwadratu przekazu czteropędu ( t ) w reprezentacji położeniowej odpowiadają rozkładom prawdopodobieństw w płaszczyźnie prostopadłej do osi zderzenia

3 Nowe kierunki Uogólnione rozkłady partonów (GPDs) Zależne od pędu poprzecznego (TMD) rozkłady partonów badane w twardych procesach ekskluzywnych np. analog tradycyjnych rozkładów partonów, ale dla spinu poprzecznego i funkcje fragmentacji badane poprzez asymetrie rozkładów azymutalnych w twardych procesach SIDIS e p e p γ (DVCS) np. e p e π + X ==> m.in. Collins and Sievers effects Rozkłady poprzecznego spinu kwarków (transversity) obecnie badane w twardych procesach SIDIS

4 Konferencje dot. GPDs and TMDs w 2006 Villa Mondragone, Monte Porzio Catone Rome, Italy June , 2006 Trento, Italy June 5 - 9, 2006 Hard Exclusive Processes at JLab 12 GeV and a Future EIC University of Maryland College Park October , 2006

5 Plan referatu Wprowadzenie Modelowanie GPDs i obliczenia na sieci QCD Tomografia hadronów Orbitalny moment pędu kwarków Dane doświadczalne dla DVCS Efekt Sieversa Planowane doświadczenia

6 PDs and GPDs PD GPD e p e Xe p e p γ σ(γ * p X) ~ Im A(γ * p γ * p) t=0 for given Q 2 depends only on x B ( x) σ(γ * p γ p) ~ | A(γ*p γ p) | 2 A(ξ, t) ξ x B / (2 - x B ), x B = Q 2 /(2pq)

7 Generalized Parton Distributions x + ξ x - ξ P 1,s 1 P 2,s 2 * Q 2 >> 1t = Δ 2 low –t process : -t << Q 2 GPD (x, ξ,t)

8 various parton processes embodied in a given single GPD outout in x < – ξ – ξ < x < ξ x > ξ Properties of GPDs

9 for p = p recover usual parton densities decouples for p = p Diracaxial pseudoscalar Pauli needs orbital angular momentum between partons Jis sum rule total angular momentum carried by quark flavour q (helicity and orbital part)

10 Observables and their relationship to GPDs Shorthand notation:

11 DA GDA wide angle scattering Other processes related to GPDs exclusive meson production 2 π production crossed channels vs. M = ρ, π, φ, J / ψ, … meson distribution amplitude (DA) appears access to different spin and flavour combinations of GPDs of quarks and gluons all invariants (s, t, u) large γ * γ p pbar, π π, ρ ρ, … similar to EMP generalised distribution amplitudes (GDAs) analogs of GPDs γ p γ p, γ * γ p pbar, …

12 Diehl, Jakob, Feldmann and Kroll (2005)

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14 shape of profile functions motivated by Regge phenomenology (small x and t ) assuming dominance of a single Regge pole: A q, B q fitted to F 1 p and F 1 n C q, D q fitted to F 2 p and F 2 n (fitting of α optional)

15 OAM from QCD Lattice calculations Note: here H q (x,Δ 2 ) H q (x,ξ=0,Δ 2 ), etc.

16 OAM from QCD Lattice calculations

17 QCD Lattice calculations

18 from QCDSF Collaboration (Lattice) from fits to nucleon formfactors Diehl, Jakob, Feldmann and Kroll (2005) J u = 0.20 ÷ 0.23 J d = – 0.04 ÷ 0.04 L u+d = – ( 0.06 ÷ 0.11 )L u-d = – ( 0.39 ÷ 0.41 )

19 Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering e p e p The same final state in DVCS and Bethe-Heitler interference I up to twist-3 BMK (2002) interference + structure of azimuthal distributions + Q 2 dependence a powerful tool to disantangle leading- and higher-twist effects and extract DVCS amplitudes including their phases P 1 (Φ), P 2 (Φ) BH propagators Fourier coefs with twist-2 DVCS amplitudes (related to GPDs) c 0 DVCS, c 1 I, s 1 I and c 0 I (the last one Q suppresed) c i DVCS, s i DVCS, c i I, s i I depend on spin orientations of lepton and nucleon

20 Available experimental data on DVCS (1) lepton charge or single spin asymmetries at moderate and large x B HERMES and JLAB results beam-charge asymmetry A C (φ) beam-spin asymmetry A LU (φ) longitudinal target-spin asymmetry A UL (φ) transverse target-spin asymmetry A UT (φ,φ s ) F 1 and F 2 are Dirac and Pauli proton form factors

21 Beam SSA after correction for 0 contamination from CLAS Two data sets (e16 at 5.7 GeV,e1f at 5.5 GeV) with different torus field (different kinematic coverage) and beam energy are consistent. VGG with TM correction Open symbols raw asymmetry Filled symbols asymmetry corrected for 0 ep

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24 Available experimental data on DVCS (2) cross section σ DVCS averaged over φ for unpolarised protons H1 and ZEUS at small x B ( < 0.01) H sea, H g - Difference between MRS/CTEQ due to different xG at low x B Q² dependence: NLO predictions - Wide range of Q 2 - sensitivity to QCD evolution of GPDs bands reflect experimental error on b: 5.26 < b < 6.40 b assumed Q 2 -independent no intrinsic skewing

25 W dependence: NLO predictions Meaurements of b significantly constrain uncertainty of models Older H1 (prel.) measurement on 2000 data with a b value in the range [4 - 7] GeV

26 Impact parameter representation and probabilistic interpretation Note: here H q (x,Δ 2 ) H q (x,ξ=0,Δ 2 )

27 ( η ξ )

28 uVuV dVdV

29 uVuV dVdV in polarized proton

30 Deformation of quark space distribution in transversely polarised nucleon note: j denotes current (not angular momentum)

31 down up Final-state interactions photon Side viewFront view NOTE: QCD tells us that the FSI has to be attractive, since quark and remnants form a color antisymmetric state Chromodynamic lensing

32 k T asymmetry of ejected (unpolarised) quarks Deformation of quark distribution in transversely polarised nucleon Final state interaction and Sievers effect

33 k T and p T

34 comparison with HERMES identified π s and K s COMPASS – pol. deuterons HERMES – pol. protons

35 Selected projects of future DVCS measurements

36 CLAS12 - DVCS/BH Target Asymmetry Asymmetry highly sensitive to the u-quark contributions to the proton spin. Transversely polarized target e p ep UT ~ sin Im{k 1 (F 2 H – F 1 E ) +…}d Q 2 =2.2 GeV 2, x B = 0.25, -t = 0.5GeV 2 E = 11 GeV Sample kinematics A UTx Target polarization in scattering plane A UTy Target polarization perpendicular to scattering plane

37 Recoil detector design Design : 2 concentric barrels of 24 scintillators counters read at both sides Goals: Detect protons of MeV/c t resolution => TOF = 200 ps exclusivity => Hermetic detector European funding (127 k) through a JRA for studies and construction of a prototype ( Bonn, Mainz, Saclay, Warsaw) COMPASS+

38 Experimental set-up for the recoil prototype test run in 2006 i CH Target Inner Layer Outer Layer A0 A1 A2 B0 B1 25cm 110cm 15° All scintillators are BC 408 A: 284cm x 6.5cm x 0.4cm Equiped with XP20H0 (screening grid) B: 400cm x 29cm x 5cm Equiped with XP4512 deuterons protons Measured β E in B (MeV) Resolution on TOF Center 340ps HV low Center310ps HV high Expect ed resolution 280 ps

39 Projected errors of a planned DVCS experiment at CERN E beam = 100 GeV 6 month data taking 25 % global efficiency 6/18 (x,Q²) data samples Good constrains for models Model 1 : H(x,ξ,t) ~ q(x) F(t) Model 2 : Beam Charge Asymmetry L = cm -2 s -1 H(x,0,t) = q(x) / x α t 3 bins in x Bj = 0.05, 0.1, bins in Q 2 from 2 to 7 GeV 2

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41 Precision of DVCS unpolarized cross sections at eRHIC eRHIC measurements of cross section will provide significant constraints For one out of 6 W intervals (30 < W < 45 GeV) L int = 530 pb -1 (2 weeks) Q 2 [GeV 2 ] eRHIC HE setup = 37 GeV σ(γ*p γ p) [nb] HE setup: e +/- (10 GeV) + p (250 GeV) L = 4.4 · cm -2 s pb -1 /day

42 Podsumowanie powerfull tool to study DVCS amplitudes From Stone Age to Bronze Age…

43 Backup slides

44 Beam spin and charge asymmetry Beam Spin Asymmetry [PRL87,2001] L=140 pb -1 Beam Charge Asymmetry symmetrization | (cancel sin terms from polarized beam) L=10 pb -1 [hep-ex/ , subm. to PRL] e +/- p e +/- p X <1.7 GeV P1 + P2 cos + P3 cos 2 + P4 cos 3 P1 = -0.01±0.02 P2 = 0.06±0.03 P3 = 0.02±0.03 P4 = 0.03±0.03 = 0.12 GeV 2, = 0.1, = 2.5 GeV 2 HERMES

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46 CLAS 6 GeV DVCS Proton epepπ o /η Hall A 6 GeV DVCS proton neutron epepπ o CLAS 5.75 GeV DVCS DDVCS ΔDVCS D2VCS Polarized DVCS epepρ L epepω L epepπ 0 / η epenπ + epepΦ HERMES 27 GeV DVCS – BSA + BCA + nuclei d-BSA d-BCA epepρ σ L + DSA epenπ+ + …. HERA GeV DVCS CLAS 4-5 GeV DVCS BSA HERMES DVCS BSA+BCA With recoil detector COMPASS DVCS +BCA With recoil detector Published ….. Preliminary results ……… … ? … GeV Deep Exclusive experiments EVERYTHING, with more statistics than ever before

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