4Nationalities Lithuanians 5,639 Macedonians 4,000 to 5,000 Romani 12,731Russians 3244Silesians 2,000,000Slovaks 1710Tatars 447Ukrainians 27,172Americans, Turks, Hungarians, French, Italians, Serbs, Croats, Bulgarians, Romanians, Georgians, Africans, Palestinians, other Arabs, Kurds, Vietnamese
5Minority and regional languages Baltic RomanyBelarusianCieszyn Silesian dialectGermanPomeranianKashubianMasurian dialectNorth Central RomanyRomani languageSilesianSlovincianUkrainian
6Minority Language(s)German, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Hebrew, RomanyARMENIAN - Old-Armenian form (called Grabar) used by several thousand of Polish Armenians exclusively in the liturgy of the Armenian-Catholic church.CZECH - Used by several hundred Polish Czechs in a few villages in Lower Silesia and in the town of Zelów in central Poland; mainly a home and church language;KARAIM - Spoken by several hundred of Polish Karaims (people of Turkic descent) in the church services of the Karaimic church;Lemkish (dialect of Ukrainian, regarded by some as a separate language)RUSSIAN - A mother tongue of approximately 2,000 Old-Believers living in northeastern Poland;TATAR - The Tatar language died long time ago; the community has several thousand members.YIDDISH AND HEBREW - Spoken by a vestigial group of the Polish Jews, Yiddish as a home language of the oldest generation and Hebrew as a sacral language;WILAMOWICEAN -Probably the least-spoken ethnolect in Poland and the last remnant of Germanic linguistic enclaves in southern Poland.Source: Mercator News, Language Minorities in Old and New Europe by Tomasz Wicherkiewicz, «National and Ethnic Minorities in Poland: Interpreting the 2002 National Census» by Grzegorz Babiński; The Polish Foreign Affairs Digest (The Polish Foreign Affairs Digest), issue: 3 (12) / 2004
7Bilingual communes in Poland Polish/German bilingual gminas (Gemeinden) in Opole Voivodeship (part of Silesia):Gmina Biała (Gemeinde Zülz; since )Gmina Bierawa (Gemeinde Birawa; since )Gmina Chrząstowice (Gemeinde Chronstau; since )Gmina Izbicko (Gemeinde Stubendorf; since )Gmina Jemielnica (Gemeinde Himmelwitz; since )Gmina Kolonowskie (Gemeinde Colonnowska; since )Gmina Lasowice Wielkie (Gemeinde Groß Lassowitz; since )Gmina Leśnica (Gemeinde Leschnitz; since )Gmina Prószków (Gemeinde Proskau; since )Gmina Radłów (Gemeinde Radlau; since )Gmina Reńska Wieś (Gemeinde Reinschdorf; since )Gmina Strzeleczki (Gemeinde Strehlitz; since )Gmina Tarnów Opolski (Gemeinde Tarnau; since )Gmina Turawa (Gemeinde Turawa; since r.)Gmina Ujazd (Gemeinde Ujest; since )
8Bilingual communes in Poland Gmina Walce (Gemeinde Walzen; since )Gmina Zębowice (Gemeinde Zembowitz; since )Other gminas in Opole Voivodeship and Silesian Voivodeship which are permitted by the Act to make German an auxiliary language are Cisek, Dobrodzień, Dobrzeń Wielki, Głogówek, Komprachcice, Łubniany, Murów, Olesno, Pawłowiczki, and Krzanowice. (A map can be found on the website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration .)Polish/Kashubian bilingual gminas in Pomeranian Voivodeship:Gmina Parchowo (Gmina Parchòwò; since )Gmina Sierakowice (Gmina Serakòwice; since )Polish/Lithuanian bilingual gmina in Podlaskie Voivodeship:Gmina Puńsk (Punsko valsčius; since )Polish/Belarusian bilingual gmina in Podlaskie Voivodeship:Gmina Hajnówka (urban commune; Гайнаўка; since )Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilingual_communes_in_Poland"
9KaszёbёMain organizations: • Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie, • Instytut Kaszubski, • Fundacja „Kaszubski Uniwersytet Ludowy”, • Stowarzyszenie „Ziemia Pucka”.Press: Express kaszubski, Òdroda, Pomerania,Radio: Radio Kaszёbё, Na botach e w borach;Television: Rodno Zemia - TVP INFO.Biggest cultural events:Zjazdy Kaszubów – „Rodnô Mòwa”, „Remusowa kara”, „Piszã pò kaszëbskù” - królewiónka w pałacu”, „By nie zapomnieć mowy ojców” im. Jana Drzeżdżona.