8 Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cnrutherford dubinin seaborg bohr has meitner darmsztad roentgen copernicus
9 Copernicum, Cn odkryty w 1996 roku w Darmstadt, Niemcy przez naukowców z Niemiec, Finlandii, Rosji i Słowacji pod kierunkiem Sigurda Hofmana277 razy cięższy od wodorupowtaje np. przez fuzję jądrową ołowiu 208 i cynku 70.rozpada się po ułamku sekundy, nie występuje w naturzeuznany przez Międzynarodowa Unia Chemii Czystej i Stosowanej w 2010 roku
11 Discovery of Elements 113 and 115 A calcium-48 ion is accelerated to a high velocity in a cyclotron and directed at an americium-243 target. The accelerated calcium-48 ion collides into an americium-243 target atom (above) and creates the new 115 element that begins decaying with the emission of alpha particles into element 113.Group members include (left to right): Philip Wilk, Jackie Kenneally, Ken Moody, Dawn Shaughnessy, Mark Stoyer, Nancy Stoyer, and John Wild (retired). Two retirees not pictured are Jerry Landrum and Ron Lougheed.https://pls.llnl.gov/research-and-development/nuclear-science/project-highlights/livermorium/elements-113-and-115
12 When will elements 113 and 115 be named? We don't know when the elements will be named. The naming of new elements is a long process governed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Any discovery of new elements must first be confirmed by an independent laboratory and established beyond a reasonable doubt. Afterwards, the research team that discovered the element is asked to propose a name and symbol for the element. The proposed name is then reviewed by a panel of experts and, if all goes well, finally approved by the IUPAC. This naming process can take many years. For example, element 110 was discovered in 1995 and received its name, darmstadtium (Ds), in 2003, while element 106 was discovered in 1974 but was not officially named as seaborgium (Sg) until 1997.https://pls.llnl.gov/research-and-development/nuclear-science/project-highlights/livermorium/elements-113-and-115
13 The man-made elements 114 and 116, which contain 114 and 116 protons per atom, respectively, are now officially called flerovium (Fl) and livermorium (Lv).The names were chosen to honor the laboratories that first created the elements: the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna, Russia, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif.June 01, 2012
14 How long did it take to discover elements 113, 114, 115, 116, and 118? Elements 113 and 115—The experiment began on July 14, 2003, and ended on August 10, In that time, four atoms of element 115 were produced that decayed after a given time, thereby producing element 113, which also decayed and so on. However, years of successful experiments, previous to the 115 and 113 discovery, were needed to show that the experiment could be successful. More than a year was then spent to clean the target material, ship it to Russia, make the target, and run the experiment.Element 114—The first element 114 experiment lasted about one year, and two atoms were discovered during that time.Element 116—The element 116 experiment also lasted about one year, and three atoms were discovered during that time.Element 118—Element 118 was produced during two separate experiments, each one lasting for several months. A total of three atoms were discovered in both experiments combined.https://pls.llnl.gov/research-and-development/nuclear-science/project-highlights/livermorium/elements-113-and-115
15 ciężkie pierwiastki, liczba atomowa powyżej 120 https://pls.llnl.gov/research-and-development/nuclear-science/project-highlights/livermorium/elements-113-and-115
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