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Unit D2: Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction

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1 Unit D2: Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction
Polityka spoleczna w UE Wizyta studyjna w Domu Polski Wschodniej Irma Krysiak Unit D2: Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction European Commission

2 Polityka spoleczna: kompetencje UE vs. kompetencje krajowe
Kompetencje sa przede wszystkim na poziomie panstw czlonkowskich (zasada subsydiarnosci) Wladze krajowe, regionalne i lokalne Partnerzy spoleczni, organizacje pozarzadowe, przedsiebiorstwa spoleczne, spoleczenstwo obywatelskie UE wspiera i uzupelnia dzialania panstw czlonkowskich (Otwarta Metoda Koordynacji) Wytyczne, monitorowanie, wymiana dobrych praktyk, wsparcie finansowe Koordynacja, nie harmonizacja But who is responsible for what? Social policy forms part of the shared competences between the EU and Member States. However, social policies are implemented more effectively at Member State level than at European level. In this way, and in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, the role of the EU in this area is limited to supporting and complementing the activities of Member States. The European Union supports and complements the Member States' activities through providing guidance through various instruments. It also monitors the social and employment situations in the Member States and regularly reports on them,. It also promotes the exchange of good practices in various ways, including through the social open method of coordination. Hence, the aim is to coordinate, but not harmonise.

3 Otwarta Metoda Koordynacji
Dobrowolny proces wspolpracy politycznej oparty na wspolnie zdefiniowanych celach i wskaznikach Trzy wspolnie zdefiniowane cele wspolpracy: Likwidacja ubostwa i wykluczenia spolecznego; Adekwatne i stabilne systemy emerytalne; Dostepna, stabilna i wysokiej jakosci opieka zdrowotna i dlugoterminowa; Prace odbywaja sie w ramach Komitetu Opieki Spolecznej (Social Protection Committee) OMC describes a voluntary cooperation at EU level, so between the Member States and the COM, The open method rests on soft law mechanisms such as guidelines and indicators, benchmarking and sharing of best practice. This means that there are no official sanctions for laggards. Rather, the method's effectiveness relies on a form of peer pressure and naming and shaming, as no member state wants to be seen as the worst in a given policy area. The starting point is that the Council of Ministers agrees on (often very broad) policy goals. The three main objectives are the following: […] Then, specific benchmarks and indicators to measure best practice are agreed upon. Finally, results are monitored and evaluated. Most work carried out in the SPC

4 Strategia Europa 2020 Dlaczego? Kryzys ekonomiczny
Dlugotrwale wyzwania Koniecznosc reform strukturalnych Co? Unijna strategia na lata dla inteligentnego i zrownowazonego wzrostu sprzyjajacego wlaczeniu spolecznemu 5 ambitnych celow (wlaczajac cel walki z ubostwem) Jak? Koordynacja poprzez Semester Europejski The EU has set five ambitious objectives — on employment, innovation, education, social inclusion and climate/energy — to be reached by In concrete terms these are: 1. ensuring 75 % employment of 20–64-year-olds; 2. getting 3 % of the EU’s GDP invested into research and development; 3. limiting greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % or even 30 % compared to 1990 levels, creating 20 % of our energy needs from renewables and increasing our energy efficiency by 20 %; 4. reducing school dropout rates to below 10 %, with at least 40 % of 30–34-year-olds completing tertiary education; 5. ensuring 20 million fewer people are at risk of poverty or social exclusion. Each EU country has adopted its own national targets in each of these areas, and EU leaders have agreed a number of concrete actions at EU and national levels. They have also identified the most important areas of action which they believe can be new engines to boost growth and jobs. These areas are addressed through seven ‘flagship initiatives’. • ‘Innovation Union’ • ‘Youth on the move’ • ‘A digital agenda for Europe’ • ‘Resource-efficient Europe’ • ‘An industrial policy for the globalisation era’ • ‘An agenda for new skills and jobs' • ‘European platform against poverty’ How? Strong coordination of national economic policies: MS publicly inform on their macro-economic, structural and employment plans  to learn from each other and detect problems in advance  a systematic and thorough exercise of screening the EU economy Avoiding deficits and increasing fiscal discipline: enhanced economic governance including sanctions (gradual up to 0.5%, only for euro-area); Fiscal Compact Watching out for macroeconomic imbalances: Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure (MIP). It aims to identify imbalances in Member States’ economies much earlier than before. 11 economic indicators, such as export market shares, labour costs, private sector debt and house prices. Financial stability (European Stability Mechanism (ESM), with €700 billion, will have more capital than any other financial organisation in the world and will be able to make up to €500 billion in loans). Growth and job creation: European Council agreed on a Compact for Growth and Jobs which will, among other things, inject more capital into the European economy through greater lending capacity from the European Investment Bank, and deepen the European single market. Financing Europe 2020: ESIF Broad involvement: All sections of society need to be involved in the Europe 2020 strategy. This must run through the core of society, including businesses, trade unions, NGOs and individual citizens. To help achieve this, the EESC has set up a steering committee on Europe 2020 with broad networks of civil society organisations all around Europe. In the same vein, the Committee of the Regions set up a Europe 2020 Monitoring Platform involving regional and local authorities. Both committees submit opinions that contribute to the discussion during the spring European Council. In fact, a large part of the strategy is actually implemented at the local and regional levels of EU countries. This includes local and regional authorities, social partners and civil society. Many actions under the flagship European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion: identifying best practices and promoting mutual learning, setting up EU-wide rules and making funding available. Key actions to achieve this are improved access to work; social security; education; and essential services such as healthcare and housing. Other key actions include better use of EU funds to support social inclusion and combat discrimination; social innovation to find new ’smart’ solutions; and new partnerships between the public and the private sectors.

5 Cele Strategii na 2020 Ubostwo: zmniejszenie liczby osob zagrozonych ubostwem i wykluczeniem spolecznym o co najmniej 20 mln Zatrudnienie: 75% osob w wieku lata powinno byc zatrudnionych Edukacja: ograniczenie liczby uczniów przedwcześnie kończących edukację do poziomu poniżej 10% co najmniej 40% osób w wieku powinno mieć wykształcenie wyższe Badania i rozwoj: przeznaczanie 3% PKB Klimat i energia: Ograniczenie emisji gazów cieplarnianych o 20% w stosunku do poziomu z 1990 r. 20% energii powinno pochodzić ze źródeł odnawialnych efektywność energetyczna powinna wzrosnąć o 20%

6 Development of the EU 2020 headline target on poverty and social exclusion
The poverty target is based on 3 social inclusion indicators which capture the multidimensional nature of poverty and social exclusion: At-risk-of-poverty rate, i.e. the relative poverty risk. The share of people with a disposable income below the national poverty line which is set at 60% of the median income. People living in severe material deprivation, i.e. share of people missing at least 4 of a set of 9 items which proxy acceptable living standards (including….) – absolute poverty People living in (quasi-)jobless households – a household is considered to be jobless when adults in the household work less than 20 percent of their time. See developments – 80 million at risk of relative poverty in 2005; 50 million severly materially deprived, and 40 million living in jobless households. Now, as an individual can be affected by these three dimensions of poverty at the same time, the total number of people in the EU which are either … amounted to roughly 120 million in 2005. When the Strategy was adopted in 2010, 2008 was the reference year for the poverty target, in which million were AROPE – target for 2020 was hence to reduce poverty by 20 mio to 96.4 million. Now, during the financial and economic crisis, the EU is drifting further away from its agreed 2020 headline target than it was before the launching of the Europe 2020 Strategy. Latest data for 2012 show that, since the beginning of the Europe 2020 strategy, poverty and social exclusion has increased from million in 2008 and 114 million in (*EU27) to 124 million in 2012 (namely 28 million more than the poverty target).

7 Obecna sytuacja spoleczna w UE
Pomimo ustanowienia wspolnych celow negatywne trendy spoleczne: Wzrost ubostwa i wykluczenia spolecznego(23.7% w 2010, 24.5% w 2013) Wzrost dlugotrwalego bezrobocia (3.9% w 2010, 5.1% w 2014) Duzy odsetek mlodych ludzi (15-29) nie zatrudnionych, nie uczacych sie i nie bioracych udzialu w szkoleniu (15.1% w 2014) W tym samym czasie obserwujemy: Poglebiajace sie rozwarstwienia spoleczne Starzenie sie spoleczenstw i zmniejszanie liczby osob w wieku produkcyjnym - Wzrost roli gospodarki opartej na wiedzy Overall, however, there a some common trends since the outbreak of the financial and economic crisis Poverty levels were problematic even before the crisis, but the crisis has exacerbated the social situation. The historically high unemployment and long- term unemployment rates across Europe, decrease of the quality of jobs, in terms of pay, and quantity of work (increase in the share of part time and temporary jobs) due to the crisis have led to increasing labour market exclusion, income loss and deteriorating income and living conditions. This has affected mainly people of working age. At the time, we also observe… Difficult and quite complex situation. At EU level, a number of initiatives and tools have been developed and are available to support MS delivery on the target.

8 2. Semester Europejski Roczny roczny cykl koordynacji polityki gospodarczej Gruntowna analiza programów reform budżetowych, makroekonomicznych i strukturalnych przedstawionych przez poszczególne państwa członkowskie Zalecenia na kolejne miesięcy. Kalendarz: KE zatwierdza Analize Wzrostu Gospodarczego i szczegolowe priorytety na kolejny rok (zazwyczaj na koniec poprzedzajacego roku) KE publikuje po jednej ocenie gospodarczej na każde państwo członkowskie. Analizuje w niej sytuację gospodarczą tego państwa, jego projekty reform oraz – jeżeli uznaje to za istotne na podstawie sprawozdania przedkładanego w ramach mechanizmu ostrzegania – prawdopodobieństwo zakłóceń równowagi ekonomicznej (luty) Panstwa czlonkowskie przedkladaja Krajowe Programy Reform ,które zamierzają przeprowadzić w celu uzyskania inteligentnego i trwałego wzrostu gospodarczego m.in. w dziedzinie zatrudnienia, edukacji, badań naukowych, innowacji, energii i włączenia społecznego (kwiecien) KE publikuje zalecenia dla panstw czlonkowskich (maj) Zalecenia sa zatwierdzane przez Rade Europejska (czerwiec/lipiec) Why? What? CSRs: targeted and concrete recommendations on what countries should achieve in the next 12 to 18 months are based on the analysis of the programmes provided by the Member States and enriched by inputs from bilateral meetings between experts from the Commission and the Member States. national reform programmes and the stability or convergence programmes are prepared by the Member States also on the basis of consultations with national stakeholders CSRs cover a broad range of issues including the state of public finances, the ability of the banking sector to sustain the economy, pension reforms, growth and competitiveness challenges, job creation and education measures, reflecting the priorities set in the annual growth survey. How? Annual GS: National Reform Programmes (for Europe 2020) – Each Member State sets national targets for the 5 objectives, and presents yearly plans on how they will reach them – in April of every year. These plans are assessed by the European Commission, which then formulates specific recommendations to each country every year in June. The implementation of reforms is then monitored by the Commission, but also between MS, in particular in the SPC Non-compliance with Commission recommendations, or failure to achieve the targets, results in political pressure. But there are no automatic consequences or sanctions

9 Fundusze UE na Europejski Fundusz Spoleczny (EFS) ~ 80 miliardow EUR Glowny instrument budzetowy wspierajacy reformy strukturalne w obszarze zatrudnienia i polityki spolecznej Minimum 20% przeznaczone na wlaczenie spoleczne; 3 miliardy EUR na Inicjatywe dla Mlodziezy Europejski Fundusz Pomocy Najbardziej Potrzebujacym ~ 3.8 miliarda EUR Skrajne formy materialnej deprywacji Program Zatrudnienia i Innowacji Spolecznych ~ miliarda EUR Wsparcie dla innowacji spolecznych Mikrofinansowanie dla rozpoczynajacych dzialalnosc gospodarcza Wspieranie europejskich sieci organizacji pozarzadowych

10 Nowa KE – nowe priorytety dla polityki zatrudnienia i polityki spolecznej
Strategia Europa 2020 i Semestr Europejski Podsumowanie dotychczasowego wdrazania Strategii – przeglad sredniookresowy Zrownowazony Semestr Europejski kladacy wiekszy nacisk na kwestie spoleczne i zatrudnieniowe Poglebienie wiedzy o panstwach czlonkowskich Prioritety tematyczne Tworzenie nowych miejsc pracy i poprawa "zatrudnialnosci" Inwestycje Mobilnosc zawodowa Kwalifikacje Modernizacja systemow spolecznych One way forward, as announced by President Juncker [cf letter accompanying the State of the Union speech] is to set out a pillar of social rights, building on the EU acquis, in order to identify common principles and reference benchmarks, which can create greater convergence of employment and social performance over time.

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