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NP3-CSI, Leuven, November 14-17, 2013 Determiners and possessives in Old English and Polish Artur Bartnik, Catholic University of Lublin, Poland

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Prezentacja na temat: "NP3-CSI, Leuven, November 14-17, 2013 Determiners and possessives in Old English and Polish Artur Bartnik, Catholic University of Lublin, Poland"— Zapis prezentacji:

1 NP3-CSI, Leuven, November 14-17, 2013 Determiners and possessives in Old English and Polish Artur Bartnik, Catholic University of Lublin, Poland

2 1. Introduction (1)a.þæshiscwides that.sg.m.genhissaying.sg.m.gen that.sg.m.genhissaying.sg.m.gen ‘his saying’ ‘his saying’ (coblick,LS_17.1_[MartinMor[BlHom_17]]: ) (coblick,LS_17.1_[MartinMor[BlHom_17]]: ) b.tenmójprojekt this.sg.nommy.sg.nom project.sg.nom this.sg.nommy.sg.nom project.sg.nom ‘my project’ ‘my project’ (IJPPAN_k123574, Jacek Bocheński 2009: 1, ‘Tyberiusz Cezar’) (2)a.hisþonereadangim his the.sg.accred.sg.accgem.sg.acc his the.sg.accred.sg.accgem.sg.acc 'his red gem' 'his red gem'(coblick,HomU_18_[BlHom_1]: ) b.mójtenprojekt my.sg.nomthis.sg.nomproject.sg.nom ‘my project’ (PELCRA_ , commission of inquiry on Orlen 2005, 17th May: 11, the Chancellery of the Sejm) Claim: The two patterns in both languages are not variants of the same construction

3 2. A comparative perspective Striking similarities in the nominal system Striking similarities in the nominal system caseMascNeutFemPl Nse þætþætþætþæt sēosēosēosēo þāþāþāþā Aþone þāþāþāþā G ÞæsÞæsÞæsÞæs þ ǣ re þāra, þ ǣ ra D ÞāmÞāmÞāmÞām þāmþāmþāmþām I þ, þon caseMascNeutFemPlN þes þis þēos þāsþāsþāsþās A þisne þāsþāsþāsþās G þisses þisse, þisre þissa D þissum I þsþsþsþs

4 Cas e Sg Sg Pl Pl Mas c FemNeutMasc Non- pers Ntentatocite Gtegotejtego tych tych Dtemutejtemu tym tym AtegotątoTychte Itymtątym tymi tymi Ltymtejtym tych tychCase Sg Sg Pl PlMascFemNeutMasc Non- pers Ntamtentamtatamtotamcitamte Gtamtegotamtejtamtego tamtych tamtych Dtamtemutamtejtamtemu tym tym Atamtegotamtątamtotamtychtamte Itamtymtamtątamtym tamtymi tamtymi Ltamtymtamtejtamtym tamtych tamtych Typological points The status of elements in possessive-determiner patterns

5 3. Variant I: determiner-possessive (3)lasuacasa theherhouse ‘her house’ (4)il mioGianni/ *mioGianni the myGianni/ myGianni ‘my Gianni’ (Longobardi 1994: 623)

6 (5)a. diesesLandvonuns this.countryofus this.countryofus 'this country of ours' 'this country of ours' b. dieses unserLand thisourcountry thisourcountry 'our country‘ (6)Both of them used to talk pleasantly of this their first journey to London. (James Boswell, Life of Johnson, 1791, Plank 1992: 454)

7 (7)ðamine þeowassindon wisdomas themyservantsare wisdom & cræftas and virtues 'my servants are wisdom and virtues' (coboeth,Bo: ) (coboeth,Bo: ) (8)ðas ðine gesætlan syndminegebroðra these your sitting are mybrothers these your sitting are mybrothers 'these that sit with you are my brothers' (coaelive,ÆLS_[Eugenia]: )

8 (9)he teah forð þa his ealdan wrenceas he brought forth the his old tricks ‘he brought forth his old tricks’ (cochronE,ChronE_[Plummer]: ) Unrestricted patterns Numerous examples (207 examples in YCOE) Numerous examples (207 examples in YCOE) Latin and native texts Latin and native texts Both paradigms used Both paradigms used Adjectives are not obligatory Adjectives are not obligatory

9 (10) Zaskakuje mnie ta jego nieuczciwość. surprise me that his lack of integrity surprise me that his lack of integrity ‘That lack of integrity of his surprises me’ ‘That lack of integrity of his surprises me’ (Swan 2002: 172) (Swan 2002: 172) (11) Ten twoj brat to zdolny facet. that your brother is talented guy that your brother is talented guy ‘that brother of yours is a talented guy’ ‘that brother of yours is a talented guy’ (Swan 2002: 172) (Swan 2002: 172) (12) Tamten twój list był dla mnie szokiem. that yourletter was for me shock that yourletter was for me shock ‘that letter of yours was a shock to me’ ‘that letter of yours was a shock to me’ (IJPPAN_k70A0084, Paweł Pollak 2006: 6, ‘Kanalia’) (IJPPAN_k70A0084, Paweł Pollak 2006: 6, ‘Kanalia’)

10 Unrestricted patterns Numerous examples Numerous examples Different texts (spoken and written) Different texts (spoken and written) Both paradigms used (ten, ta, to as well as tamten, tamto, tamta) Both paradigms used (ten, ta, to as well as tamten, tamto, tamta) Adjectives are not obligatory Adjectives are not obligatory Can be used with common and proper nouns Can be used with common and proper nouns

11 4. Variant II: possessive-determiner (13) hisþone readan gim his the redgem ‘his red gem’ ‘his red gem’ (coblick,HomU_18_[BlHom_1]: ) (coblick,HomU_18_[BlHom_1]: ) (14) he eac lufige his þone nextan he also love his the neighbour ‘he will also love his neighbour’ (coalcuin,Alc_[Warn_35]:47.38) (15) midhis þam anwealde withhis the power ‘with his power’ (coboeth,Bo: )

12 Restricted patterns Numerous examples (326 examples in YCOE) Numerous examples (326 examples in YCOE) Only one paradigm accepted (se, seo þæt), no examples with the other paradigm Only one paradigm accepted (se, seo þæt), no examples with the other paradigm Adjectives are obligatory (complements) Adjectives are obligatory (complements)

13 (16) Ana imię jak twojej tej narzeczonej jest? And on name how your this fiancée is ‘and what is your fiancée’s name? ‘and what is your fiancée’s name? (PELCRA_ , family meeting, conversations) (PELCRA_ , family meeting, conversations) (17) Jeżeli mój ten projekt, który niby if my this project which apparently miałem podpisać, był zły… was-supposed to-signwas bad… ‘if my project, which I was supposed to sign, was bad…’ (PELCRA_ , commission of inquiry on Orlen 2005, 17th May: 11, the Chancellery of the Sejm)

14 casePossessive-demonstrative (1st person) OccurrencesPossessive-demonstrative (2nd person) Occurrences N/A mój ten 6 twój ten 1 G mojego tego 2 twojego tego 0 D mojemu temu 0 twojemu temu 0 I/L (o) moim tym 2 (o) twoim tym 2 N moja ta 4 twoja ta 1 G/D/L (o) mojej tej 2 (o) twojej tej 1 A moją tę 2 twoją tę 0 A/I moją tą 0 twoją tą 0 N/A moje to 2 twoje to 0 Table 1. Possessives mój, moja, moje and twój, twoja, twoje in the singular with demonstrativescasePossessive-demonstrative (1st person) OccurrencesPossessive-demonstrative (2nd person) OccurrencesN moi ci/moje te 2 twoi ci/twoje te 0 G/A/L moich tych 0 twoich tych 0 D moim tym 0 twoim tym 0 I moimi tymi 0 twoimi tymi 0 Table 2. Possessives mój, moja, moje and twój, twoja, twoje in the plural with demonstratives

15 casePossessive-demonstrative (1st person) OccurrencesPossessive-demonstrative (2nd person) Occurrences N/A nasz ten 3 wasz ten 1 G naszego tego 2 waszego tego 0 D naszemu temu 0 waszemu temu 0 I/L (o) naszym tym 0 (o) waszym tym 0 N nasza ta 3 wasza ta 1 G/D/L (o) naszej tej 3 (o) waszej tej 0 A naszą tę 1 waszą tę 0 A/I naszą tą 1 waszą tą 0 N/A nasze to 0 wasze to 0 Table 3. Possessives nasz, nasza, nasze and wasz, wasza, wasze in the singular with demonstrativescasePossessive-demonstrative (1st person) OccurrencesPossessive-demonstrative (2nd person) OccurrencesN nasi ci/nasze te 2 wasi ci/wasze te 1 G/A/L naszych tych 1 waszych tych 0 D naszym tym 0 waszym tym 0 I naszymi tymi 1 waszymi tymi 0 Table 4. Possessives nasz, nasza, nasze and wasz, wasza, wasze in the plural with demonstratives

16 Restricted patterns Marginal patterns Marginal patterns Used only in spoken/informal register Used only in spoken/informal register Only one paradigm accepted (ten, ta, to), no examples with the other paradigm Only one paradigm accepted (ten, ta, to), no examples with the other paradigm Adjectives are not obligatory Adjectives are not obligatory

17 se, seo þæt and ten, ta, to definite articles? Se and ten- proximal and distal distinction is neutralized (only markers of definiteness) Se and ten- proximal and distal distinction is neutralized (only markers of definiteness) Se and ten in possessive-determiner patterns have more article-like properties Se and ten in possessive-determiner patterns have more article-like properties Heusler Old Norse Heusler Old Norse Scatton Bulgarian: moja-ta kniga ‘my the book’ Scatton Bulgarian: moja-ta kniga ‘my the book’ Bridging contexts: Bridging contexts: (18) We have an old car. This is why the engine is constantly broken (whole-part bridging) (19) We went to the cinema yesterday. The film was very funny (relational anaphora)

18 (20) Poszłam na pocztę zapakować i wysłać I-go to post officeto-pack and to-send książkę. (Ta) paczka wypadła dość niezdarnie book (This) package turn out ratherawkward ‘I went to the post office to pack and send a book. (This) package turned out to be rather awkward’ (Mendoza 2004: 283) Conclusions: The two patterns in both languages are not variants of the same construction- possessive-determiner pattern is restricted in both languages but in different ways. The two patterns in both languages are not variants of the same construction- possessive-determiner pattern is restricted in both languages but in different ways. The possessive-determiner pattern features article-like elements in both languages. The possessive-determiner pattern features article-like elements in both languages.

19 Selected references: Allen, Cynthia Possessives and determiners in Old English. In Types of Variation: Diachronic, Dialectal and Typological Interfaces, edited by Terttu Nevalainen, Juhani Klemola and Mikko Laitinen, 149–170. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Bacz, Barbara On some article-like uses of the demonstrative ten [this] in Polish. Could ten become an article? Langues et Linguistique 17: 1–16. Bańko, Mirosław, Górski, Rafał L., Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, Barbara, Łaziński, Marek, Pęzik, Piotr and Przepiórkowski, Adam Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego. [National Corpus of the Polish Langauge] Warszawa: IPI PAN. Bartnik Artur Categorial heterogeneity: OE determiners. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 43: 75–96. Bartnik, Artur Noun phrase structure in Old English. Lublin: KUL. Fischer, Olga The position of the adjective in Old English. In Generative Theory and Corpus Studies: A Dialogue from 10 ICEHL, edited by Ricardo Bermudez-Otero, David Denison, Richard M. Hogg and Chris B. McCully,153–81. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Giusti, Giuliana The categorial status of determiners. In The New Comparative Syntax, edited by Liliane Haegeman, 95–123. London and New York: Longman. Heusler, Andreas Altislandisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg: Carl Winter [Germanische Bibliothek 1]. Longobardi, Guiseppe Reference and proper names: a theory of N-movement in syntax and logical form. Linguistic Inquiry 25: 609–665. Mendoza, Imke Nominaldetermination im Polnischen. Die primären Ausdrucksmittel. Habilitation thesis. LMU München. Pęzik, Piotr Wyszukiwarka PELCRA dla danych NKJP [The PELCRA Search Engine for NKJP]. In Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego [National Corpus of the Polish Language], 253–279. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Pęzik, Piotr Język mówiony w NKJP [Spoken Language in NKJP]. In Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego [National Corpus of the Polish Language], 37–47. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Plank, Frans Possessives and the distinction between determiners and modifiers (with special reference to German). Journal of Linguistics 28: 453–68. Scatton, Ernest A A Reference Grammar of Modern Bulgarian. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica. Swan, Oskar E A Grammar of Contemporary Polish. Bloomington: Slavica. Taylor, Ann, Warner Anthony, Pintzuk Susan and Beths Frank The York Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English. UK: Department of Language and Linguistic Science, University of York. Topolińska, Zuzanna Składnia grupy imiennej [The Syntax of the Noun Phrase]. In Zuzanna Topolińska (ed.), Gramatyka Współczesnego języka polskiego. Składnia, [The Grammar of Contemporary Polish. Syntax]. 301–389. Warszawa: PWN.


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