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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT D: Distribution authorized to the Department of Defense and U.S. DoD contractors. This document contains technical data for Administrative.

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1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT D: Distribution authorized to the Department of Defense and U.S. DoD contractors. This document contains technical data for Administrative or Operational Use. Date of Determination October 29, Other requests for this document shall be referred to the FCS Security Office at: Program Executive Office, Ground Combat Systems, ATTN: SFAE-GCS-FCS-WS / MS #515, 6501 East 11 Mile Road, Warren, MI /26/2016 2:07:48 AM BEZZAŁOGOWE POJAZDY LĄDOWE DLA OPERACJI WOJSKOWYCH I PARA-WOJSKOWYCH Bogdan T. Fijalkowski Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych” WOJSKOWA AKADEMIA TECHNICZNA Warszawa, 14 marca 2006 Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych” WOJSKOWA AKADEMIA TECHNICZNA Warszawa, 14 marca 2006 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, BOGDAN FIJALKOWSKI Marcht POLITECHNIKA KRAKOWSKA   POLITECHNIKA KRAKOWSKA IM. TADEUSZA KOŚCIUSZKI IM. TADEUSZA KOŚCIUSZKI

2 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT D: Distribution authorized to the Department of Defense and U.S. DoD contractors. This document contains technical data for Administrative or Operational Use. Date of Determination October 29, Other requests for this document shall be referred to the FCS Security Office at: Program Executive Office, Ground Combat Systems, ATTN: SFAE-GCS-FCS-WS / MS #515, 6501 East 11 Mile Road, Warren, MI /26/2016 2:07:48 AM UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLES FOR MILITARY AND PARA-MILITARY OPERATIONS Bogdan T. Fijalkowski Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych” WOJSKOWA AKADEMIA TECHNICZNA Warszawa, 14 marca 2006 Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych Sympozjum nt. „Perspektywy wojskowych bezzałogowych pojazdów lądowych” WOJSKOWA AKADEMIA TECHNICZNA Warszawa, 14 marca 2006 Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, BOGDAN FIJALKOWSKI Marcht POLITECHNIKA KRAKOWSKA   POLITECHNIKA KRAKOWSKA IM. TADEUSZA KOŚCIUSZKI IM. TADEUSZA KOŚCIUSZKI

3 3 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM AGENDA  Introduction  Experimental Proof-Of-Concept RBW or XBW Integrated Automotive Vehicle Mechatronic Control Hypersystem  Path Planning Framework Using an A* Search  Driver-Vehicle and Terrain-Vehicle Real-Time Expert System  Forward Only Motion  Conclusions  References „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH” 

4 4 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  To the Living Memory of Prof. Dr M G (‘Greg’) Bekker Lunar Roving Vehicle LRV

5 5 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM Outline Unmanned Ground Vehicles in the FCS Unit of ActionUnmanned Ground Vehicles in the FCS Unit of Action –Purpose and Functions –Organizational Structure UGV ConceptsUGV Concepts –Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle (SUGV) –Multi-Function Utility/Logistics/Equipment (MULE) Vehicles –Armed Robotic Vehicles (ARV) –Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) Development Approach and StatusDevelopment Approach and Status Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 7 Sept 2004, FCS Case W. Alan Walls

6 6 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM FCS UGV Systems Autonomous Navigation System Partner: GD Robotic Systems Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle Partner: iRobot Air Assault Transport Countermine MULE Vehicle Family Partner: Lockheed Martin ARV Variants Partner: United Defense ARV - Assault ARV- RSTA Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 7 Sept 2004, FCS Case W. Alan Walls

7 7 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM MULE/ARV-L Family Concepts Key Functional Allocations Support agile, sustainable dismounted operationsSupport agile, sustainable dismounted operations Transport infantry squad equipmentTransport infantry squad equipment Conduct recon, surveillance and targetingConduct recon, surveillance and targeting Suppress dismounted forces and destroy MBTsSuppress dismounted forces and destroy MBTs Support assured mobility – mine location, marking and neutralizationSupport assured mobility – mine location, marking and neutralization Mule TransportMule CountermineARV – Assault (L) The MULE vehicles are built on a common mobility platform and use many common subsystems Key Attributes 2.5 ton class vehicles2.5 ton class vehicles C-130 and rotary wing aircraft transportableC-130 and rotary wing aircraft transportable Designed for exceptional mobilityDesigned for exceptional mobility Primary control by dismountsPrimary control by dismounts Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 7 Sept 2004, FCS Case W. Alan Walls

8 8 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM ARV Variants Key Functional Allocations Support FCS forces with local and networked lethalitySupport FCS forces with local and networked lethality Provide mobile, unmanned ground ISR capability in all weather conditionsProvide mobile, unmanned ground ISR capability in all weather conditions Deploy sensors and designatorsDeploy sensors and designators Operate with both mounted and dismounted forcesOperate with both mounted and dismounted forces ARV - Assault ARV - RSTA FCS ARVs Will Reduce Soldier Exposure In High Vulnerability Recon and Assault Missions Key Attributes 6-8 ton class vehicles6-8 ton class vehicles C130 and rotary wing aircraft transportableC130 and rotary wing aircraft transportable MGV mobility and survivability equivalence (approximate)MGV mobility and survivability equivalence (approximate) Primary control from MGVsPrimary control from MGVs Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 7 Sept 2004, FCS Case W. Alan Walls

9 9 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM Detecting on-coming trafficDetecting on-coming traffic Near-field obstacle detection in obscurantsNear-field obstacle detection in obscurants Enhances driver performance in low visibility conditionsEnhances driver performance in low visibility conditions ANS Concept – MGV Integration RH Imaging Perception Module (IPM) Forward LADAR Imaging Perception Module (LIPM) Rear LADAR Imaging Perception Module (LIPM) LH Imaging Perception Module (IPM) MMW RADAR ANS Computer (in “Attic) GPS Antenna Provides GPS/INS data for navigation and targetingProvides GPS/INS data for navigation and targeting Video data processingVideo data processing ANS algorithm processingANS algorithm processing SoSCOE on-board communicationSoSCOE on-board communication Primary ANS sensor packagePrimary ANS sensor package LADARLADAR Stereo color, IR, and low light camerasStereo color, IR, and low light cameras Supports lane change, indirect driving, near field surveillanceSupports lane change, indirect driving, near field surveillance Mono colorMono color Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV) Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 7 Sept 2004, FCS Case W. Alan Walls

10 10 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM How the UGV Contribute to the FCS Operational Concept FCS equipped UAs implement the operational desire to: see first, understand and act first, and finish decisivelyFCS equipped UAs implement the operational desire to: see first, understand and act first, and finish decisively in a new way The FCS operational concept features: The FCS operational concept features: -- Seeing more accurately over greater distances using unmanned systems and -- Seeing more accurately over greater distances using unmanned systems and sensors and integrating Joint assets sensors and integrating Joint assets –Battle Command systems that permit faster better understanding and decisions to act –Fire and maneuver capabilities featuring precision engagement at all ranges to finish decisively FCS UGV’s support all of these functions:FCS UGV’s support all of these functions: –“Provide the eyes” to support to BLOS and LOS fires and overwatch to enable rapid movement –Enhance survivability and lethality by extending battlespace coverage and situational awareness –Provide the relays needed by the information and decision support network UGVs provide the commander a valuable tool that increases mission performance, Force Protection and Survivability, while reducing logistical support and manning requirements. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 7 Sept 2004, FCS Case W. Alan Walls

11 11 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM FCS UGV Development Status and Path Forward Requirements Development Nearing CompletionRequirements Development Nearing Completion –Preliminary System Level Requirements Reviews Conducted –Refinement Continuing Based on Detailed Mission Analyses –Baseline Requirements to be finalized at System Functional Review (~May ’05) Design ActivitiesDesign Activities –Preliminary Design Reviews planned for March 2006 –Critical Design Reviews planned for Summer 2007 Risk MitigationRisk Mitigation –Close working relationships with technology programs at DARPA and Army RDECOM –Simulation/Emulation in FCS SoS Integration Lab to verify network and S/W functions –Early test rigs planned for subsystem integration and verification –User experimentation planned to continuously evolve operational concepts and requirements Prototype Test and EvaluationPrototype Test and Evaluation –Initial prototypes planned for Summer 2008 –Extensive qualification and performance verification testing planned at the system and the FCS System of Systems level Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 7 Sept 2004, FCS Case W. Alan Walls

12 12 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 1: Structural and functional block diagram of a RBW or XBW integrated automotive vehicle mechatronic control hypersystem [Source: Winner et al. 2003].

13 13 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 2: Localisation of the day/night stereovision IR cameras [Source: OMRON; Chen 2003 [Source: OMRON; Chen 2003].

14 14 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 3: All-weather and all-terrain intelligent the 6 × 6.6 or 8 × 8.8 or especially 4 × 4.4 AECVs [Source: Fijalkowski 1999].

15 15 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  Dr. Leo Dorst & Dr. Karen Trovato Dr. Karen Trovato and Dr Leo Dorst have won the ‘2005 Inventor of the Year’ award from the New York Intellectual Property Law Association (NYIPLA), one of the USA’s leading associations of intellectual property lawyers.

16 16 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 4: Framework for an intelligent UGV’s RBW or XBW integrated automotive mechatronic control system [Source: Trovato 1996].

17 17 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 5: Driver-vehicle & terrain-vehicle real-time expert system [Source: Fijalkowski & Trovato 1994, Fijalkowski 1997, 2000].

18 18 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 6: Topology of the 3-D configuration space [Source: Fijalkowski & Trovato 1994; Trovato 1996].

19 19 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 7: A neighbourhood of possible motion in 2-D configuration space [Source: Fijalkowski & Trovato 1994; Trovato 1996]

20 20 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 8: A neighbourhood of possible motion in 3-D configuration space [Source: Fijalkowski & Trovato 1994; Trovato 1996]

21 21 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 9: Full transformation of the two parked UGVs in 3-D configuration space [Source: Fijalkowski & Trovato 1994; Trovato 1996].

22 22 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 10: Minimising distance travelled while evading obstacles [Source: Trovato 1996].

23 23 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 11: UGV that parks itself (parallel parking in minimum distance) [Fijalkowski & Trovato 1994].

24 24 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 12: UGV starting reversed [Source: Trovato 1996].

25 25 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 13: An UGV’s right turn with forward-only constraint [Trovato 1996].

26 26 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  FIGURE 14: The UGV test-bed environment [Trovato 1996].

27 27 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  I would like to thank Dr. Karen I. Trovato at Philips Research for opening Ph.D. thesis of hers on “A* Planning in Discrete Configuration Spaces of Autonomous Systems” to me and fruitful discussions during preparing our co-operative presentation for the 27th ISATA in 1994 [Fijalkowski & Trovato 1994]. Thank you as well for the Karen’s cordial dedication to the above-mentioned work you wrote me that I scanned it above.

28 28 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”   Ladies and Gentlemen Thank you for your attention.

29 29 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH”  Prof. Dr Bogdan T. Fijalkowski

30 30 6/26/2016 2:07:48 AM „PERSPEKTYWY WOJSKOWYCH BEZZAŁOGOWYCH POJAZDÓW LĄDOWYCH” 


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